Sunday, December 21, 2014

The Fall


       Abrahamic theists come into there religion, on the basis of being told they are a fallen creature, because of a story told at the begining of the bible. They are told they were born sinners, because of a talking snake, and magical fruit. Without ever investigating for themselves, they buy the package lock stock and barrel. They humbly submit to the fable out of fear in ignorance, and worship whatever name of deity they have deemed to be the right one from the pages of the text. The bible is in fact pretty clear as to what happened in the begining of the book, and its also clear as to why there are so many contradictions, errors, and inconsistancies in the pages. The story of the fall in the garden, is the prime real estate propaganda of the Abrahamic religion matrix, and decoding it means unlocking the real story and reality of the contents of the book.



Gen 1:29-31  And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.


On day six, after deity created all things, god created man. After creating man, the deity gave the very first instruction in the book to all creatures. God told man, that everything that comes from a tree having fruit baring seed, all herb baring plants, vegetables and fruits from vegetation, was good for food and to be meat for him. He also tells man that all beasts and fowls, and things that creepeth, have been given the same to be their food, their meat. The deity commanded strict veganism between both man and animal, which means animals are considered sentient by deity. Carnivorism it seems was disallowed. The important point in the text is the fact that the the animals, were also given the same instruction, and that means animals have choice and free will as we have. They can choose to be herbivore or carnivore, just as we can.


Ec 3:21  Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth?


Ec 3:19  For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence 'above' a beast: for all is vanity.


In other places in the bible, animals are said to have both souls and spirits,. and its also stated that man has no preeminence above them.


Gen 2:9  And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also 'in the midst of the garden', and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.


God states that two trees were planted in the garden, and both are given different locations as to their placement in the garden. The tree of life is stated to be in the midst of the garden, the tree of knowledge of good and evil is not given this specific designation. The phrase in the midst, denotes the tree of life being throughout, and everywhere in the garden, Its in the midst.


Gen 2:16-17 ¶  And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.


Deity claims in no uncertain terms in a commandment, that every tree that is 'of the garden' may be freely eaten. Their is a distinction in saying 'of the garden.' Gardens are made of flora, vegetation, trees, plants, flowers etc. The deity warns man that he is not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for on the day he does he will surely die. Again, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil is not given a specific designation, its not said this tree is of the garden, nor is it in the midst. It only says do not eat it because if you do you will die.


Gen 3:1 ¶  Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?



While in the garden, a serpent, which is an animal, or rather a reptile, and who is said to be more wise then any other beast of the field, because that's what the word subtil generally means in hebrew, asks the woman if god had said they shall not eat of every tree in the garden. The answer to the question is the deity stated clearly that every tree could be eaten that was of the garden. The serpent did not lie to the woman, nor is there anything malicious in the question. The serpent is merely asking a question to something already clearly addressed by deity.


Gen 3:2  And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees 'of the garden:'


The woman responds by saying they could freely eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden. She is clearly professing she is acknowledging the herbivore commandment given earlier.


Gen 3:3  But of the fruit of the tree which is 'in the midst of the garden,' God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.


The woman then says that the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, they cannot eat or touch or they will die. The woman is LYING here to the serpent which is really herself if your paying attention. The tree in the midst of the garden is the 'tree of life' and deity gave no such commandment anywhere saying they could not eat of that tree. God also clearly only designated the tree of life as being in the midst of the garden, and not the tree of knowledge.


Gen 3:4-5  And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

The serpent once again does not lie to the woman. The tree that the woman told the serpent they could not eat was the tree which in the midst, the tree of life. If they eat of that tree, they will not surely die. What is even more revealing is that the serpent says that if they eat of the tree in the midst of the garden which is the tree of life, there eyes "will be opened and will be as gods" knowing good and evil. Only the serpent states that there eyes shall be opened and they will be as gods, deity never states this in the passage.


Gen 3:6 ¶  And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.


The woman by lieing to the serpent, clearly was hiding the other tree, the tree of knowledge. The woman looked at the tree of knowledge, a tree NOT in the midst of the garden. It was not in the midst or of the garden, because the tree of knowledge of good and evil MOVES and it is a tree of DNA. The woman sees that it is pleasant to the eyes and good for food, a tree desired to make one wise and shes still talking to the serpent who is subtil and wise. The woman takes of the fruit of tree of knowledge and eats, and her husband eats.


Gen 3:7  And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.


They ate the moving tree which appears to be the serpent, there eyes were opened, they knew they were naked, and they sewed fig leaves to hide there shame. Why fig leaves? They were told to only eat vegetation earlier, they just ate an animal, a serpent by the context and flow of the passage. In order to eat an animal, the animal must be dead. When you eat animals, your eating a corpse, death. Thus, they instantly ingested death, a corpse so death entered in them and they died.


Gen 3:13  And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.


The woman lies again, the serpent did not tell her one lie nor did he deceive her. If they would have eaten of the tree of life, they would have lived and become as gods having life abundantly. The serpent did not beguile her, she tried to beguile HERSELF with the serpent because she wanted to eat him!.


Gen 3:14 ¶  And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:


Where is the serpent? The serpent is in them, they ate him.! Thus, who is deity talking to? The woman because thats who hes speaking to. God says the woman and her husband shall be cursed above all animals and on their belly they shall go. Dust they shall eat the rest of there lives. How do we know this?


Ps 44:25  For our soul is bowed down to the dust: our belly cleaveth unto the earth.


Mt 23:33  Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?


Mic 7:17  They shall lick the dust like a serpent, they shall move out of their holes like worms of the earth: they shall be afraid of the LORD our God, and shall fear because of thee.


Because people are said  to be on there belly's, they lick dust,  are serpents in the bible, that's why. From dust thou art, to dust thou shalt return!. You are what you eat and we ate a serpent. Adam and eve broke the first instruction and its conditions, be herbivores. They killed and ate an animal, a serpent. And because the woman saw the serpent was wise, and if she ate him she thought would make her wise, the crime was an act of animism. The fall in the garden was the killing and eating of an animal, there is no mistake it about because the evidence is left at the crime scene.


Ge 3:21 ¶  Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.


The skin leftover from the serpent, god makes coats for them so they wear there shame!. Any other interpretation makes the bible up to this point a pile of contradiction and makes the deity in it psychotic.


Gen 3:15  And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.


This is merely saying that god shall put enmity between animals and man because they killed and ate one, that's only natural. If animals can choose and have free will, they will certainly turn and have enmity with man. The seed of animals shall bruise mans head and man shall bruise animals heel. Why? because as said earlier, man was cursed above all beasts, all animals, because the serpent was in the woman and god was talking to the woman, and that means man is BELOW them. To be cursed above all beasts is to be BELOW them. Now you know why the constellations and signs in the heavens are anthropomorphic, they are animals and above man in the heavenlies. Animals are ABOVE man now, thus they "bruise the head" and we are below thus we "bruise there heel".


Gen 4:1 ¶  And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD. 

Cain - 07014 קין Qayin kah’ yin posession, 07013 קין qayin kah’ yin  'a fixed spear', 07069 קנה qanah kaw-naw’ of God originating, creating, redeeming His people aquiring knowledge and wisdom;


man - 0376 אישׁ ‘iysh eesh:  husband, great man, servant, mankind, champion


Adam knows his wife and she bares cain. She says she has gotten a IYSH from the lord, a man. That word means champion, husband, great man, servant of God in hebrew, its much different then the generic name man which is adom. Its a name applied to deity later on in the book (Hos 2:16). The name Cain means 'divine posession', of god originating and redeeming his people, and aquiring knowledge and wisdom.


Gen 4:2 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.


The name Abel means 'vanity' and to be altogether empty. The prefix AB in the name is used in the negative, and in conjunction with the word EL which means god, the name means negative god or rather to negate god. The word Abel comes from the word in hebrew hebel, and the word hebel is the root where we get the word EVIL from. Abel was a transgressor of the herbivore covenant in chapter 1, and Cain was an upholder of it. Cain brought forth offerings of the tree of life, the garden, vegetation, and Abel killed and ate animals, the tree of knowledge of good and evil.


Gen 4:3 ¶  And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD. 4  And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:


       The redactors of the bible have reversed the roles in the text and have made Cain the bad guy and Abel the good guy. Fact is, ABEL is the first killer in the bible after his mom. He killed and ate animals being a hunter, his offerings to deity were blood sacrifices. EL is the deity of the OT and El is Saturn. The fabricators of the bible have transplanted SATURN as the deity of scripture, SATAN, as the deity that demands blood sacrifice and killing and this is why God has respect unto 'negative god's' offering who is Abel. There is an original deity and religion that was vegetarian in basis in the text that has been overthrown and rewritten as Saturnian, the god who 'eats his creatures'. Many jewish rabbinical commentators have stated the original religion was changed and undermined, as there was a vegetarian covenant at first.


Bible


Gen 4:8 ¶  And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.


Most Probable

Gen 4:8 ¶  And Abel talked with Cain his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Abel rose up God/EL Cain his brother, and slew him.


Against - 0413 אל ‘el ale (but only used in the shortened constructive form אל ‘el el) primitive particle; prep; {See TWOT on 91}


Why would a VEGETARIAN such as Cain, who wouldnt kill or eat animals, KILL his brother? Why does Cain disappear from the story after chapter 4? Why does the deity appear to be psychotic giving respect unto Abels offering, which were sacrifices of animals which the deity made statutes against it?


Gen 4:9 ¶  And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: -- I my brother’s 'keeper?'

Gen 4: 2  And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a 'keeper' of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.


Correct Roles


Gen 4:9 ¶  And the LORD said unto Abel, Where is Cain thy brother? And he said, I know not: -- I my brother’s 'keeper?'


All italics in the bible are added words not in any original, remove them. Take note that Abel was the one earlier called a "keeper" of anything, Cain was a tiller of the ground. Abel being a "keeper" of sheep KILLED SHEEP IN SACRIFICES and also ate them. Who is the killer and "keeper"? The deity sounds like an idiot if he doesnt know where Abel is, but not if he really doesnt know where he is because there isnt a body.


Gen 4:10  And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground.



This appears as though the only thing left was blood on the ground. There wasnt a body left just blood and the body 'consumed' somehow, at least by what the text insinuates. Now again, I ask you, WHO was a "keeper"? WHO is the one that kept ANIMALS AND KILLED AND ATE THEM AND MADE SACRIFICES OF THEM?. So then, who in a court of law would be more of a suspect to do the crime out of the two?


Gen 4:15  And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.


Seven is the number of God. Why would God protect Cain from anyone killing him, if he murdered Abel? Why does this sound like something is wrong, the story UPSIDE DOWN, BACKWARDS? Whats wrong with this picture?. Cain disapears after the story. Abel and his name continues throughout the OT in numerous names right up to the NT.


Gen 4:24  If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.


Why are supposed Cains descendents invoking Cains PROTECTION from deity? Why is the deity protecting Cain the murderer? Why is the name of the land named after Cain called the "promised land"? Between the two brothers, who practiced non violence in their lives?. Why does god destroy man and beast but SAVE man and beast through a flood, only to save a few of man and beast. Then turn around and command Noah to get off the ark and start slaughtering the animals he just saved????


Gen 8:19  Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.
20 ¶  And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.


Sorry, but this makes the deity look like hes a PSYCHOPATH!. Save all the beasts both clean and unclean, then START SLAUGHTERING WHEN WE GET OFF THE BOAT? Sorry, this is another GOD being redacted into the text. One that wants sacrifices and killing of creatures. There is another deity and religion thats taking place earlier in the text, when it gets off the ark its something completely different.


Ge 10:9  He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD.


     Nimrod the bad guy is bad guy because hes a mighty HUNTER. He hunted ANIMALS. Nimrod is the archetype for the king of Babylon, and the prince of Tyrus in bible prophecy. Nimrod is the one who built babylon. His claim to fame was he was the mightiest HUNTER and hunting animals is an act of carnivorism, something that was commanded against at the beginning of the book.


Ge 25:27  And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.


Mal 1:3  And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.


Why does the deity hate Esau in the story? He was cunning HUNTER of animals. Only in this story the locations are reversed for the roles, Esau is a HUNTER in the fields and Jacob the 'supplanter' lives in tents. Why is Esau ultimately rejected?


Heb 12:16  Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright.


Esau sold his birthright for a PIECE OF MEAT!. He was HUNTER of animals, he gave his birthright to the supplanter for a MORSEL OF MEAT!. So again I ask you, why does the god in the bible sound like he is BI-POLAR when one moment he respects killing and sacrifices and condemns and hates those who are hunters and eat meat the next? Whats wrong with this picture?


Ex 10:26  Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.


In Egypt, Moses tells pharoah all the Israelites cattle must leave with them in Exodus. Moses says they knew not what and how they were going to serve deity so they better take there cattle. After all, deity destroyed the egyptians cattle in a plague but spared all the Israelites cattle (Ex 9:6).


Ex 16:3  And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.


While in Exodus, the people murmmer and complain about "flesh pots" back in Egypt. They say Moses is trying to starve them out in the wilderness.


Ex 16:4  Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.


God tells Moses that because of the murmurrings, he will TEST the people by raining 'bread' down from heaven. They were carnivores back in Egypt as the text implies for they had "flesh pots" and bread to the full back in Egypt.


Ex 16:12  I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God.
13 ¶  And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.
14  And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.
15  And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.


The etymology of the word Manna implies it was a type of seed baring herb, corriander seed, that while in the sun popped and puffed life popcorn then would melt under the suns heat (Ex 17:31, 17:20-21). It was a food from the tree of life, vegetation. Deity also sends quails, flesh and blood, as part of the testing.


Nu 11:32  And the people stood up all that day, and all that night, and all the next day, and they gathered the quails: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp.
33  And while the flesh was yet between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of the LORD was kindled against the people, and the LORD smote the people with a very great plague.
34  And he called the name of that place Kibrothhattaavah: because there they buried the people that lusted.


The people LUST after the TREE OF KNOWLEDGE of good and evil over the TREE OF LIFE. While the meat, the flesh was yet in their teeth, God KILLED THEM ALL!. The deity here is upholding the herbivore covenant in Gen ch.1. This deity kills carnivores en masse. This deity ONLY accepts herbivores as the text literally implies. The quails are sent at EVEN or EVENING. Evening or even is when they were to eat the passover lamb.


Jer 7:22  For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices:


Jeremiah says deity gave no commandments concerning sacrifices and offerings when they came out of Egypt. The exodus narrative seems to co-oberate this and also enforce the pretext. This then creates a problem. Why would deity command sacrifices of lambs for passovers in Egypt, then claim exact opposite for the Exodus? Once again, the deity appears psychotic by the applications of commands. Someone is making the deity go against his initial instructions, and command sacrifice and offering for carnivorism via redactment of the text. The scribes have altered the text to institute blood sacrifice when the original deity is clearly against it, and states he gave no such commands.


Num 21:5  And the people spake against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.
6  And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died.
7  Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people.
8  And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live.
9  And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.


     The hebrews of Exodus are plagued by SERPENTS that bite the people and they die because of their lusting after FLESH. Moses is commanded to make an effigy of a serpent on a pole, and when they LOOK UPON it, they are healed from the plague. What is the serpent on the pole? It is the SERPENT OF THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE, the one that was EATEN in the garden. Its "carnivorism" and this story is to make the Israelites look back to the initial cause of all their failings, that of becoming CARNIVORES. Of course the implication is that by looking upon the serpent they will STOP eating meat, thus will be healed.


Ps 50:13  Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?



Isa 66:3  He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog’s neck; he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol. Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations.


One side of the bi-polar deity in the OT is clearly against the killing and consuming of animals. Isaiah claims the law directly reflects this anti-carnivorist attitude of deity even though the prophets ADMIT the text was changed by devious carnivores.


 Mr 12:31  And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.


Le 19:18  Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.


Neighbor


07453 רע rea‘ ray’ ah or ריע reya‘ ray’ ah

from 07462; n m; {See TWOT on 2186 @@ "2186a"}

AV-neighbour 102, friend 42, another 23, fellow 10, companion 5, other 2, brother 1, husband 1, lovers 1, neighbour + 01121 1; 188

1) friend, companion, fellow, another person
1a) friend, intimate
1b) fellow, fellow-citizen, another person (weaker sense)
1c) other, another (reciprocal phrase)

07462 רעה ra‘ah raw-aw’

a primitive root; v; {See TWOT on 2185} {See TWOT on 2186}

AV-feed 75, shepherd 63, pastor 8, herdmen 7, keep 3, companion 2, broken 1, company 1, devour 1, eat 1, entreateth 1, misc 10; 173

1) to pasture, tend, graze, feed
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to tend, pasture
1a1a) to shepherd
1a1b) of ruler, teacher (fig)
1a1c) of people as flock (fig)
1a1d) shepherd, herdsman (subst)
1a2) to  feed, graze
1a2a) of cows, sheep etc (literal)
1a2b) of idolater, Israel as flock (fig)
1b) (Hiphil) shepherd, shepherdess
2) to associate with, be a friend of (meaning probable)
2a) (Qal) to associate with
2b) (Hithpael) to be companions
3) (Piel) to be a special friend


According to the bible, the word "neighbor" distinctly implies ANIMALS 'literally'. Animals are your neighbors and companions, and scripturally they are called "innocents" in many places. They are innocents because they are being KILLED through the devious misapplication of the commands of deity to consume them. To kill and or eat animals is to transgress the "royal" commandment according to scripture. You neither love deity or yourself if your consuming and eating your animal neighbors.


Nu 3:13  Because all the firstborn are mine; for on the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast: mine shall they be: I am the LORD.


Ps 36:6  Thy righteousness is like the great mountains; thy judgments are a great deep: O LORD, thou preservest man and beast.


Ps 50:11  I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the field are mine.



Ps 50:10  For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.


Isa 43:20  The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.


The bible text implies throughout that animals are "on par" with man when it comes to almost everything, including the law with deity. Man has NO PREEMINENCE "ABOVE" a  beast. That means contrary to what all abrahamic theism teaches, there is no basis or right in the bible to kill and consume animals. The entire bible has a typological thematic of "predator" and "prey" throughout the contents. Sheep and wolves, lions and lambs, beasts and men tearing ripping and consuming flesh. God throughout the OT is seen as a carnivorous predator, a "lion" in most cases, but other animals as well, that is "hunting" mankind....


Job 10:16  For it increaseth. Thou huntest me as a fierce lion: and again thou shewest thyself marvellous upon me.


Ps 7:2  Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.


Ps 17:12  Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.


Pr 19:12  The king’s wrath is as the roaring of a lion; but his favour is as dew upon the grass.


Isa 38:13  I reckoned till morning, that, as a lion, so will he break all my bones: from day even to night wilt thou make an end of me.


Jer 25:38  He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.


La 3:10  He was unto me as a bear lying in wait, and as a lion in secret places.


Ho 13:7  Therefore I will be unto them as a lion: as a leopard by the way will I observe them:


1Pe 5:8  Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:


Why is god an "adversary", a devouring Lion to mankind? Because of the first instructions on day 6, the herbivore covenant!. Deity is a Lion and a adversary because we are SERPENTS that consume the creation aka OUROBOROS/SATURN. Wherein our fall entailed us becoming predators and the animals the prey, we now have become the prey for the predator known as deity, a LION, CARNIVORE, MEAT EATER!. You reap what you sow and we reaped BAD KARMA!. As the esoteric maxim states, AS ABOVE SO BELOW, ON EARTH AS IT IS IN HEAVEN. The animals are ABOVE us because of the fall, and we are BELOW them having become "animals". Deity is ABOVE where the animals are enthroned as the constellations, thus deity is as a PREDATOR to us "below". We are CURSED above the animals to be BELOW them and the heavens have been set against us. We are perpetually consuming carnivore SERPENTS that consume the creation of the creator, we are BEASTS ON OUR BELLIES....


Job 18:3  Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight?


Ps 49:12  Nevertheless man being in honour abideth not: he is like the beasts that perish.


Ec 3:18  I said in mine heart concerning the estate of the sons of men, that God might manifest them, and that they might see that they themselves are beasts.


Mt 23:33  Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?


Tit 1:12  One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.


Job 15:35  They conceive mischief, and bring forth vanity, and their belly prepareth deceit.


Job 20:20  Surely he shall not feel quietness in his belly, he shall not save of that which he desired.


Job 20:23  When he is about to fill his belly, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall rain it upon him while he is eating.


So 7:2  Thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor: thy (Gods's) belly is like an 'heap of wheat' set about with lilies.


The belly of the CARNIVORE who eats animals is bowed down to the ground and EATS DUST for MEAT AND BLOOD IS DUST because meat and blood came from the dust, and meat and blood returns to the dust. Note that the belly of deity is HERBIVORE, its like a sheaf of WHEAT and whaeat is what makes BREAD. This is anti-carvorism prose. Eating any and all "meat" that has HAIMA within it, "BLOOD WITH HEMOGLOBIN either warm or cold, is considered an ABomination, an "AB-EL" or rather an AB against DEITY. Blood can NEVER EVER be removed from flesh for tissue is comprised of HAIMA or rather hemoglobin. You cannot pour it out, it cannot be cooked of. Eating blood in "any manner" means a soul is CUT OFF.....


Le 7:26-27  Moreover ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. Whatsoever soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.


Any "manner" of blood, of any kind, any type, "any manner". Cooked or uncooked, in your shrimp cocktail or your smoked salmon, ANY MANNER of blood and if you do you are CUT OFF. Why? The "life" of deity is IN THE BLOOD!


Le 17:11  For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.


      Our bodies consist of less then 2% matter, the rest is water mostly in the form of HEMOGLOBIN. There would be nothing left to eat of meat if all the blood was removed because meat is almost entirely made of blood!!!!. Any deity that commands the sacrifice and consumption of animals, is ordering his adherents to TRANSGRESS the very laws he made and commits genocide because of over!. Its was the killing and consuming of animals as the reason why man and beast perished by the flood.  This is why the god in the bible appears to be NUTS!. Its this primary theme throughout the bible and the polemics between two factions, that makes the god in the bible appear certifiable!.


 Isa 1:11  To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.


Job 20:14  Yet his meat in his bowels is turned, it is the gall of asps within him.


Ps 44:11  Thou hast given us like sheep appointed for meat; and hast scattered us among the heathen.


Ps 78:18  And they tempted God in their heart by asking meat for their lust.


Ps 78:30  They were not estranged from their lust. But while their meat was yet in their mouths,


La 1:11  All her people sigh, they seek bread; they have given their pleasant things for meat to relieve the soul: see, O LORD, and consider; for I am become vile.


MEAT, the eating of meat or blood is seen by the deity as an ABOMINATION, a 'trap and a snare', and something akin to be unto "devils" (Lev.17:7). From cover to cover of the bible, eating meat is something that brings WRATH by deity as seen by the story of  the Exodus. The heaven above has animals enshrined within them as THE ZODIAC or rather MAZZAROTH, the 'zoo house'. HEAVEN is what is known as OURANOS in the greek or rather SHAMAYIM in the hebrew. It mean "sky" or HEAVEN. Called CAELUS in latin and URANUS in english, OURANOS was the first father and abobe of the 'gods'. Called the "brasen starry sky", the "hammered expanse", the greeks claimed it was 'golden' like fire and the gods which were the planets, were "held up" by ouranos.....


Nu 21:9  And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.


De 28:23  And thy heaven that is over thy head shall be brass, and the earth that is under thee shall be iron.


Theognis, Fragment 1. 869 ff (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) :
"May the great wide bronze sky (ouranos) fall upon me from above, the fear of earth-born men."


       The serpent was made of BRASS that was on the pole, and brass is actually a representation of OURANOS THE "BRASEN STARRY SKY". Ouranos or Uranus was the first god and king of the 'golden age' who is deposed by SATURN. His entire age in history is lost and REPLACED by that of Saturns. The 'brass heaven" above is the brazen hammered heaven of URANUS, the one who birthed holds up the MAZZAROTH, the "zoo house" of the ZODIAC, the anthropomorphic constellations in heaven. What the text is saying is that the heaven witnesses against them, THE ZODIAC, THE ANIMALS WITNESS AGAINST THEM. The zodiac is of OURANOS who made them!.The first age was the age of "heaven", of OURANOS and it disapears from history and myth. He is the father of the zoohouse, the animals, of man, the first father. Saturn becomes the usurper who became a destroyer of the animals through the undermining of his father Ouranos kingdom, the golden age. The animals above are the "the sand as the stars of heaven" and they "bruise the head" of MAN who is below on earth. This is why the entire book has BEASTS, ANIMALS, EXACTING THE VEGEANCE AND WRATH OF DEITY.....


De 28:26  And thy carcase shall be meat unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and no man shall fray them away.


De 32:24  They shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction: I will also send the teeth of beasts upon them, with the poison of serpents of the dust.


Isa 56:9  All ye beasts of the field, come to devour, yea, all ye beasts in the forest.


Jer 7:33  And the carcases of this people shall be meat for the fowls of the heaven, and for the beasts of the earth; and none shall fray them away.


Jer 12:9  Mine heritage is unto me as a speckled bird, the birds round about are against her; come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, come to devour.


Jer 16:4  They shall die of grievous deaths; they shall not be lamented; neither shall they be buried; but they shall be as dung upon the face of the earth: and they shall be consumed by the sword, and by famine; and their carcases shall be meat for the fowls of heaven, and for the beasts of the earth.


Jer 19:7  And I will make void the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem in this place; and I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hands of them that seek their lives: and their carcases will I give to be meat for the fowls of the heaven, and for the beasts of the earth.


Eze 29:5  And I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers: thou shalt fall upon the open fields; thou shalt not be brought together, nor gathered: I have given thee for meat to the beasts of the field and to the fowls of the heaven.


Jer 12:4  How long shall the land mourn, and the herbs of every field wither, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein? the beasts are consumed, and the birds; because they said, He shall not see our last end.




Continued......

Friday, December 19, 2014

Uranus Myth

OURANOS (or Uranus) was the primeval god (protogenos) of the sky. The Greeks imagined the sky as a solid dome of brass, decorated with stars, whose edges descended to rest upon the outermost limits of the flat earth. Ouranos was the literal sky, just as his consort Gaia was the earth.
Ouranos and Gaia fathered twelve sons and six daughters. The eldest of these--the giant Kyklopes and Hekatonkheires--he locked away inside the belly of Earth. Gaia suffered immense pain and persuaded her Titan sons to rebel. Four of these were set as sentinels at the four corners of the world, ready to grasp their father as he descended to lie upon the Earth. The fifth took his place in the centre, and armed with an adamantine sickle, castrated Ouranos while his brothers held him firm. The sky-god's blood fell and drenched the earth, producing the avenging Erinyes and the Gigantes.
After his downfall, Ouranos prophesied the fall of the Titanes and the punishment they would suffer for their crimes--a prophecy which was later fulfilled by Zeus who deposed the brothers and cast them into the Tartarean pit. Ouranos does not occur in early Greek art, however Egyptian representations of the sky-goddess Nut show how he was imagined--as a gigantic, star-spangled man with long arms and legs, who rested on all fours, with his finger-tips in the far east, his toes in the far west, and his arching body raised to form the dome of the sky. In Roman-era art he was often depicted as Aion, god of eternal time, in the guise of a man standing above the reclining form of Gaia (Earth) holding the zodiac wheel in his hand.

ENCYCLOPEDIA


       U′RANUS (Ouranos), the Latin Caelus, a son of Gaea (Hes. Theog. 126, &c.; comp. Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 17), but is also called the husband of Gaea, and by her the father of Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rheia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe Tethys, Cronos, of the Cyclopes, Brontes, Steropes, Arges, and of the Hecatoncheires Cottus, Briareus and Gyes. (Hes. Theog. 133, &c.) According to Cicero (De Nat. Deor. iii. 22, 23), he also was the father of Mercury (Hermes) by Dia, and of Venus by Hemera. Uranus hated his children, and immediately after their birth, he confined them in Tartarus, in consequence of which he was unmanned and dethroned by Cronos at the instigation of Gaea. (Hes. Theog. 180.) Out of the drops of his blood sprang the Gigantes, the Melian nymphs, and according to some, Silenus, and from the foam gathering around his limbs in the sea, sprang Aphrodite (Hes. Theog. 195 ; Apollod. i. 1; Serv. ad Aen. v. 801, ad Virg. Ecl. vi. 13).
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

OURANOS & THE BIRTH OF THE KOSMOS


I) THE HESIODIC COSMOGONY

Hesiod, Theogony 115 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"Verily at first Khaos (Air) came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth) . . . and dim Tartaros (Hell) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth, and Eros (Love), fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them. From Khaos (Air) came forth Erebos (Darkness) and black Nyx (Night); but of Nyx (Night) were born Aither (Light) and Hemera (Day), whom she conceived and bore from union in love with Erebos. And Gaia (Earth) first bore starry Ouranos (Heaven), equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. And she brought forth long Ourea (Mountains) . . . She bore also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontos (Sea), without sweet union of love."

II) THE EUMELIAN COSMOGONY

The lost Titanomachia epic, attributed to Eumelus of Corinth, included a cosmogony. It was probably similar in most respects to Hesiod's, but with a few significant points of divergence--Ouranos, Gaia and Pontos, for example, were apparently represented as children of Aither (Upper Air) and Hemera (Day).


Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 2 (from Anecdota Oxon. i.75) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :

"According to the writer of the War of the Titans Ouranos was the son of Aither."


Callimachus, Fragment 498 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"[Ouranos is called] revolving Akmonides (son of Akmon). [Akmon may be a name for Aither]."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"From Caligine (Mist) [was born] Chaos (Air);
From Chaos [was born]: Nox (Night), Dies (Day), Erebus, Aether . . .
From Aether (Light) and Dies (Day) [Hemera] [were born] : Terra (Earth) [Gaia], Caelum (Heaven) [Ouranos], Mare (Sea)."


Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :

"If he [Kronos] is a god, we must also admit that his father Caelus (Sky) [Ouranos] is a god. And if so, the parents of Caelus, Aether (Upper Air) and Dies (Day) [Hemera], must be held to be gods."
III) THE COSMOGONY OF ALCMAN


Alcman, Fragment 61 (from Eustathius on Homer's Iliad) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.) :

"The father of Ouranos, as was said already, is called Akmon because heavenly motion is untiring (akamatos); an the sons of Ouranos are Akmonidai: the ancients make these two points clear. Alkman, they say, tells that the heaven belongs to Akmon. (N.B. The text may also be read as "Ouranos is Akmon.")"


Alcman, Fragment 5 (from Scholia) :

"So at the same moment there came into being Poros (Contriver) and Tekmor (Ordinance) and Skotos (Darkness) [Erebos]. ‘Amar (Day) and Melana (Moon) and third, Skotos (Darkness) as far as Marmarugas (Flashings) [starry Ouranos or Aither?].'"


IV) THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY

Aristophanes, Birds 685 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :

"At the beginning there was only Khaos (Air), Nyx (Night), dark Erebos (Darkness), and deep Tartaros (Hell's Pit). Ge (Earth), Aer (Air) and Ouranos (Heaven) had no existence . . . That of the Immortals did not exist until Eros (Sexual Desire) had brought together all the ingredients of the world, and from their marriage Ouranos (Heaven), Okeanos (Ocean Stream), Ge (Earth) and the imperishable race of blessed gods (Theoi) sprang into being."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"He [Orpheus] sang of that past age when Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Sky) and Pontos (Sea) were knit together in a single mould; how they were sundered after deadly strife."


Orphica, Theogonies Fragment (from the Deveni Papyrus) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd A.D. - C2nd B.C.) :

"Ouranos (Sky), son of Nyx (Night), who became king first of all."


Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 54 (from Damascius) :

"Khronos (Time), the serpent has offspring, three in number : moist Aither (Light) (I quote), unbounded Khaos (Air), and as a third, misty Erebos (Darkness) . . . Among these, he says, Khronos (Time) generated an egg--this tradition too making it generated by Khronos, and born ‘among’ these because it is from these that the third Intelligible triad is produced. What is this triad, then? The egg; the dyad of the two natures inside it (male and female) [Ouranos the heaven and Gaia the earth], and the plurality of the various seeds between; and thirdly an incorporeal god [Phanes or the primordial Eros] with golden wings on his shoulders . . . And the third god of the third triad this theology too celebrates as Protogonos (First-Born), and it calls him Zeus the order of all and of the whole world."


Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 57 (from Athenogoras) :

"Khronos (Time) . . . [also called] Herakles generated a huge egg, which, being filled full, by the force of its engenderer was broken in two from friction. Its crown became Ouranos (Heaven), and what had sunk downwards, Gaia (Earth). There also came forth an incorporeal god [Phanes or primeval Eros]."


Orphica, Epicuras Fragment (from Epiphanius) :

"And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg, and the Wind [Khronos (Time) and Ananke (Inevitability)?] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres [Ouranos and Gaia, heaven and earth]."


Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 1 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky were made, in the whole world the countenance of nature was the same, all one, well named Chaos, a raw and undivided mass, naught but a lifeless bulk, with warring seeds of ill-joined elements compressed together. No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world, no waxing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew, nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth, self-balanced, equipoised, nor Amphitrite’s [the Sea’s] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. Though there were land and sea and air, the land no foot could tread, no creature swim the sea, the air was lightless; nothing kept its form, all objects were at odds, since in one mass cold essence fought with hot, and moist with dry, and hard with soft and light with things of weight. This strife a Deus (God) [the elder Eros or Khronos?], with nature’s blessing, solved; who severed land from sky and sea from land, and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky; and, each from the blind heap resolved and freed, he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. The fiery weightless force of heaven’s vault [Ouranos] flashed up and claimed the topmost citadel; next came the air in lightness and in place; the thicker earth with grosser elements sank burdened by its weight; lowest and last the girdling waters pent the solid globe. So into shape whatever god it was reduced the primal matter and prescribed its several parts. Then first, to make the earth even on every side, he rounded it into a mighty disc, then bade the sea extend and rise under the rushing winds, and gird the shores of the encircled earth . . . Scarce had he thus all things in finite bounds divided when the Sidera (Stars), in darkness blind long buried, over all the spangled sky began to gleam; and, that no part or place should lack fit forms of life, the firmament he made the home of gods and goddesses and the bright constellations; in the sea he set the shining fish to swim; the land received the beasts, the gusty air the birds."


Ovid, Fasti 5. 9 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"After Chaos, when the world acquired three elements and the whole structure shifted to new forms, earth subsided with its weight and dragged the seas [Pontos] down, but lightness lifted the heavens [Ouranos] up high. The sun, too, jumped out, not chained by gravity, and the stars, and you horses of the moon. Terra [Ge the Earth] for a long time did not yield to Caelus [Ouranos the Heaven]. Nor Stars to Phoebus [Helios the Sun]. All rank was equal."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 50 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Gaia (Earth) produced Aither [here Ouranos] dotted with its troop of stars : you [Dionysos] have your birth from Ouranos (Sky), but my Gaia (Earth) shall cover you up. Kronos himself . . . was covered up in Gaia’s bosom [i.e. in Tartaros], son of Ouranos though he was."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 334 ff :

"[The monster Typhoeus addresses Zeus :] `Ouranos (Sky) is my brother, a son of Gaia like myself.'"

Aeon & Gaea | Roman mosaic
Z15.2 AEON
(URANUS), GAEA
Aeon with zodiac | Roman mosaic
Z15.2B AEON
WITH ZODIAC
Aeon with zodiac | Roman mosaic
Z15.1 AEON
WITH ZODIAC
Aeon, Gaea, Carpi & Horae | Roman mosaic
Z16.4 AEON ZODIAC,
GAEA, HORAE

THE REIGN & CASTRATION OF OURANOS

Hesiod, Theogony 126 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"Afterwards she [Gaia the Earth] lay with Ouranos (Heaven) and bare deep-swirling Okeanos, Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Kronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire. And again, she bare the Kyklopes, overbearing in spirit, Brontes, and Steropes and stubborn-hearted Arges. And again, three other sons were born of Gaia and Ouranos, great and doughty beyond telling, Kottos and Briareos and Gyes [the Hekatonkheires]. From their shoulders sprang a hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. For of all the children that were born of Gaia and Ouranos, these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father from the first. And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Gaia (Earth) so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Ouranos rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Gaia groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart : `My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things.' So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Kronos the wily took courage and answered his dear mother : `Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of doing shameful things.' So he said : and vast Gaia rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot. And Ouranos came, bringing on night and longing forlove, and he lay about Gaia spreading himself full upon her. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him.
And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Gaia received, and as the seasons moved round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great Gigantes [perhaps the Kouretes] with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphai whom they call Meliai all over the boundless earth. And so soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden [Aphrodite] . . .
But these sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos used to call Titanes (Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards."


Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff :

"But when first their father [Ouranos] was vexed in his heart with Obriareus and Kottos and Gyes [the Hekatonkheires], he bound them in cruel bonds . . . and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth, where they were afflicted, being set to dwell under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its great borders, in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart."


Hesiod, Theogony 459 ff :

"For he [Kronos] learned from Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Heaven) that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus. Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children: and unceasing grief seized Rhea. But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men, then she besought her own dear parents, Gaia and starry Ouranos, to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution might overtake great, crafty Kronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told her all that was destined to happen touching Kronos the king and his stout-hearted son. So they sent her to Lyetos, to the rich land of Krete, when she was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children."


Hesiod, Theogony 44 ff :

"And they [Mousai] uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Gaia and wide Ouranos begot [the Titanes], and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things."


Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Frag 1 (from Photius) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :

"The Epic Cycle begins with the fabled union of Ouranos and Ge, by which they make three Hekatontacheiroi [Hundred-handed] sons and three Kyklopes to be born to him."


Homeric Hymn 30 to Gaea (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) :

"Mother of the gods [Gaia], wife of starry (asteroentos) Ouranos."


Alcaeus, Fragment 441 (from Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) :

"Akousilaus [mythographer early C5th B.C.] says . . . that when Ouranos was castrated drops happened to flow undergound and the Phaiakai [Phaeacians] were born from these; . . . Alkaios too says that the Phaiakai have their origin in the drops that fell from Ouranos."


Bacchylides, Fragment 52 (from Tzetzes) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"From the blood that flowed from the genitals [of Ouranos] three Erinyes were born first in the earth, Teisephone, Megaira and Alekto with them; and along with them the four famous Telkhines, Aktaios, Megalesios, Ormenos and Lykos [probably here identified with the Kouretes-Daktyloi]."


Simonides Fragment 52 (from Scholiast on Theocritus 1.65) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C6th to 5th B.C.) :

"Aitna is a mountain in Sikelia (Sicily), named after Aitna, daughter of Ouranos (Heaven) and Ge (Earth), according to Alkimos in his work on Sikelia (Sicily)."


Aeschylus, Agamemnon 168 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :

"He [Ouranos] who once was mighty, swelling with insolence for every fight, he shall not even be named as having ever existed; and he [Kronos] who arose later, he has met his overthrower [Zeus] and is past and gone."


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 165 ff :

"[The Titanes :] The race sprung from Ouranos (genna ouranios)."


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 207 ff :

"The Titanes, children of Ouranos (Heaven) and Khthon (Earth)."


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 955 ff :

"Have I [the Titan Prometheus] not seen two sovereigns [Ouranos and Kronos] cast out from these heights [of heaven]?"



Aeschylus, Fragment 107 Prometheus Unbound (from Cicero, Tusculan Disputations 2. 10. 23-25) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :

"[Prometheus :] Ye race of Titanes, offspring of Ouranos, blood-kinsmen mine!"


Plato, Euthyphro 5e (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"Men believe that Zeus . . . put his father [Kronos] in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children, and he in turn had mutilated his father [Ouranos] for similar reasons."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 1 - 3 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"Ouranos (Sky) was the first to rule over the entire world. He married Ge (Earth) and sired first the Hekatonkheires, who were names Briareos, Gyes and Kottos. They were unsurpassed in both size and power, and each had a hundred hands and fifty heads. After these he sired the Kyklopes, by name Arges, Steropes, and Brontes, each of whom had one eye in his forehead. But Ouranos (Sky) bound these and threw them into Tartaros, a place in Hades’ realm as dark as Erebos, and as far away from the earth as the earth is from the sky, and fathered other sons on Ge (Earth), namely the Titanes : Okeanos, Koeus, Hyperion, Kreios, Iapetos, and Kronos the youngest; also daughters called Titanides: Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe, Dione, Theia. Now Ge (Earth), distressed by the loss of her children into Tartaros, persuaded the Titanes to attack their father, and she gave Kronos a sickle made of adamant. So all of them except Okeanos set upon Ouranos (Sky), and Kronos cut off his genitals, tossing them into the sea. From the drops of the flowing blood Erinyes were born, named Alekto, Tisiphone, Megaira. Thus having overthrown Ouranos’ (Sky's) rule the Titanes retrieved their brothers from Tartaros and gave the power to Kronos."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 982 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"In the Keraunian Sea, fronting the Ionian Straits, there is a rich and spacious island, under the soil of which is said to lie (bear with me, Mousai; it gives me little pleasure to recall the old tale) the sickle used by Kronos to castrate his father Ouranos . . . From this reaping-hook the island takes its name of Drepane, the sacred Nurse of the Phaiakians, who by the same token trace their ancestry to Ouranos (Heaven)."


Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 43 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"The builders made strong wooden towers with battlements [building the city of Zankle in Sicily], and placed them around the sickle of Kronos--for there in a cave is hidden under the earth the sickle with which he cut off his father’s [Ouranos'] genitals. [N.B. The sickle was buried near where the city of Zankle "The Sickle" was founded.]"


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"The Titanes numbered six men and five women, being born, as certain writers of myths relate, of Ouranos and Ge, but according to others, of one of the Kouretes and Titaia, from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. The males were Kronos, Hyperion, Koios, Iapetos, Krios and Okeanos, and their sisters were Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe and Tethys [he omits Theia]."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 23. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"[Next to Bolina, Akhaia] a cape juts out into the sea, and of it is told a story how Kronos threw into the sea here the sickle with which he mutilated his father Ouranos (Heaven). For this reason they call the cape Drepanon [N.B. drepanon means sickle]."


Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 1 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :

"Aphrodite was born from the sea (thalattê) through an emanation of Ouranos . . . [The choristers] are singing clearly enough of her birth, for by looking upward they indicate that she is from heaven (ouranos), and by slightly moving their upturned hands they show that she has come from the sea."


Orphica, Theogonies Fragment (from the Deveni Papyrus) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd A.D. - C2nd B.C.) :

"Kronos (Time) who did a mighty deed to Ouranos (Sky), son of Nyx (Night), who became king first of all; following him again Kronos, and then Zeus the contriver."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"From Aether [or Ouranos] and Terra [Gaia] [were born various Daimones] . . .
[From Caelum (Ouranos) and Terra (Gaia) were born ? :] Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; and Titanes: Briareus, Gyes, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion and Polus [Koios], Saturnus [Kronos], Ops [Rhea], Moneta [Mnemosyne], Dione; and three Furiae, namely Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone."


Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 24 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :

"Another theory also, and that a scientific one, has been the source of a number of deities, who clad in human form have furnished the poets with legends and have filled man’s life with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example, an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece that Caelus [Ouranos the Sky] was mutilated by his son Saturnus [Kronos], and Saturnus himself thrown into bondage by his son Jove [Zeus] : now these immoral fables enshrined a decidedly clever scientific theory. Their meaning was that the highest element of celestial ether or fire [that is Ouranos], which by itself generates all things, is devoid of that bodily part which required union with another for the work of procreation."


Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 6 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) :

"The clouds parted, and Caelus (Heaven) [Ouranos] admitted his daughter [Aphrodite]; the topmost region delightedly welcomed the goddess."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 86 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Did not the water conceive Aphrodite by a heavenly husbandry [Ouranos], and bring her forth from the deeps?"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 222 ff :

"[A Naiad sees Semele swimming in her stream and imagines her as a second Aphrodite :] `Can it be that Kronos, after the first Kypris [Aphrodite], again cut his father’s [Ouranos'] loins with unmanning sickle until the foam got a mind and made the water shape itself into a selfperfected birth, delivered of a younger Aphrodite from the sea?'"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 43 ff :

"The first tablet [recording the prophecies of Phanes], old as the infinite past, containing all things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Kronos accomplished: when he cut off his father’s male plowshare, and sowed the teeming deep with seed on the unsown back of the daughterbegetting sea (Thalassa)."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 435 ff :

"When the fertile drops from Ouranos, spilt with a mess of male gore, hand given infant shape to the fertile foam and brought forth the Paphian [Aphrodite]."


Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 18. 223 ff :

"[Zeus] in his first youth battered the earthborn Titanes for Olympos, when he was only a boy . . . Kronos still dripping held the emasculating sickleblade, after he had cut off the manly crop of his father’s [Ouranos’] plow and robbed him of the Mother’s [Gaia’s] bed to which he was hastening, and warred against your sire at the head of the Titanes."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 21. 252 ff :

"[the Indian King Deriades speaks :] `I know nothing of Kronos, or of Kronides [Zeus] who destroyed his father, nor Kronos the master-deceiver, who swallowed his own children, and shore away from Aither [Ouranos] the hive of begetting love.'"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 98 ff :

"[Aphrodite] newly born from the brine; when the water impregnated from the furrow of Ouranos was delivered of deepsea Aphrodite; when without marriage, the seed plowed the flood with male fertility, and of itself shaped the foam into a daughter, and Phusis (Nature) was the midwife."

OURANOS & THE FERTILISING RAINS OF HEAVEN

Aeschylus, Fragment 25 Danaides (from Athenaeus, Deipnosophists xiii. 73. 600B) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :


"The holy Heaven (ouranos) yearns to wound the Earth (khthon) [i.e. Gaia], and yearning layeth hold on the earth to join in wedlock; the rain, fallen from the amorous heaven, impregnates the earth, and it bringeth forth for mankind the food of flocks and herds and Demeter’s gifts [i.e. grain]; and from that moist marriage-rite the woods put on their bloom. Of all these things I [Aphrodite, goddess of procreation] am the cause."

OURANOS THE ORACULAR VOICE OF HEAVEN

Hesiod, Theogony 459 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"He [Kronos] learned from Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Heaven) that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus."


Hesiod, Theogony 886 ff :

"Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis (Counsel) his wife first . . . But when she was about to bring forth the goddess bright-eyed Athene, Zeus craftily deceived her with cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Heaven) advised. For they advised him so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway over the eternal gods in place of Zeus."


Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 5 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th or 6th B.C.) :

"The narcissus, which Gaia made to grow at the will of Zeus . . . to be a snare for the bloom-like girl [Persephone]--a marvellous, radiant flower. It was a thing of awe whether for deathless gods or mortal men to see: from its root grew a hundred blooms and it smelled most sweetly, so that wide Ouranos (Heaven) above and Gaia (Earth) and Thalassa's (Sea) salt swell laughed for joy."


Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 334 ff (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) :

"Hera prayed, striking the ground flatwise with her hand, and speaking thus : `Hear now, I pray, Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Heaven) above, and you Titanes gods who dwell beneath the earth about great Tartaros, and from whom are sprung both gods and men! Harken you now to me, one and all, and grant that I may bear a child apart from Zeus.'"


Pindar, Olympian Ode 7. 36 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"From the cleft summit of her father’s [Zeus'] brow Athene sprang aloft, and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And Ouranos (Sky) trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia (Earth)."


Anacreon, Fragment 505d (from Fulgentius, Mythologies) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) :

"According to Anakreon . . . when Zeus was beginning warfare against the Titans (Titani), ie the sons of Titan (Titanas), brother of Kronos (Saturn), and had sacrificed to Ouranos, he saw an eagle fly nearby as a favourable omen for victory. In return for this happy omen, and particularly because it was indeed followed by victory, he put a golden eagle on his war standards and dedicated it as a protection for his valour."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 71. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"Before the battle against the Gigantes in Krete [the Titanes], we are told, Zeus sacrificed a bull to Helios (Sun) and to Ouranos (Sky) and to Ge (Earth); and in connection with each of the rites there was revealed to him what was the will of the gods in the affair, the omens indicating the victory of the gods and a defection to them of the enemy [certain Titanes defected to the side of Zeus]."

OURANOS WITNESS OF THE OATH OF THE GODS

Homer, Iliad 15. 36 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

“He [Zeus] spoke . . . : `Now let Gaia (Earth) be my witness in this, and wide Ouranos (Heaven) above us, and the dripping water of the Styx, which oath is the biggest and most terrible among the blessed immortals.'"


Homeric Hymn 3 to Delian Apollo 84 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) :

"And Leto sware the great oath of the gods : `Now hear this, Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Sky) above, and dropping water of Styx.'"


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 697 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"[Khalkiope addresses her sister Medea :] `Swear by Gaia and Ouranos that you will keep what I say to yourself and work in league with me . . '
[Medea replies :] `I will do as you ask and take the solemn oath of the Kolkians, swearing by mighty Ouranos (Heaven) and by Gaia (Earth) below, the Mother of the Gods, that provided your demands are not impossible I will help you as you wish, with all the power that in me lies.'"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 45. 526 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Both [the gods] took a binding oath, by Kronides [Zeus] and Gaia (Earth), by Aither (Sky) and the floods of Styx; and the Moirai (Fates) formally witnessed the bargain."

HYMNS TO OURANOS

Orphic Hymn 4 to Uranus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :

"To Ouranos (Heaven), Fumigation from Frankincense. Great Ouranos, whose mighty frame no respite knows, father of all, from whom the world arose; hear, bounteous parent, source and end of all, for ever whirling round this earthly ball; abode of gods, whose guardian power surrounds the eternal world with ever during bounds; whose ample bosom, and encircling folds the dire necessity of nature holds. Ethereal, earthly, whose all-various frame, azure and full of forms, no power can tame. All-seeing source of Kronos (Time), for ever blessed, deity sublime, propitious on a novel mystic shine, and crown his wishes with a life divine."

OURANOS, MISCELLANY

Plato, Cratylus 400d & 396a (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :]
Sokrates : Let us inquire what thought men had in giving them [the gods] their names . . . The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . . . This god [Zeus] is correctly named, through whom (di' hon) all living beings have the gift of life (zên) . . . And it might seem, at first hearing, highly irreverent to call him the son of Kronos and reasonable to say that Zeus is the offspring of some great intellect; and so he is, for koros signifies not child, but the purity (katharon) and unblemished nature of his mind. Kronos, according to tradition, is the son of Ouranos (Heaven); but the upward gaze is rightly called by the name heavenly (ourania), looking at the things above (horô ta anô), and the astronomers say, Hermogenes, that from this looking people acquire a pure mind, and Ouranos is correctly named."

OURANOS THE BRONZE DOME OF THE SKY

Hesiod, Theogony 678 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"[During the War of the Titanes :] The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide ouranos (heaven) was shaken and groaned . . . under the charge of the undying gods."


Hesiod, Theogony 700 ff :

"[During the War of the Titanes :] [Zeus] came forthwith, hurling his lightning . . . Astounding heat seized Khaos : and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Heaven) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Gaia (Earth) were being hurled to ruin, and Ouranos (Heaven) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife."


Hesiod, Theogony 730 ff :

"[Tartaros lies] as far beneath the earth (gaia) as heaven (ouranos) is above earth; for so far is it from earth to Tartaros. For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven (ouranos) nine nights and days would reach the earth (gaia) upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartaros upon the tenth. Round it [Tartaros] runs a fence of bronze [where the edges of the pit meet with earth at the ends of the earth], and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea . . . And there [in this dark realm at the ends of the flat disc of the earth], all in their order, are the sources and ends of gloomy earth (gaia) and misty Tartaros and the unfruitful sea (pontos) and starry heaven (ouranos) [where the sky dome reached down to earth], loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor."


Theognis, Fragment 1. 869 ff (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) :

"May the great wide bronze sky (ouranos) fall upon me from above, the fear of earth-born men."


Aristophanes, Peace 499 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :

"Very far, very far, right at the furthest end of the dome of heaven (ouranos)."


Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 2. 549 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :

"Thus as she [Eos goddess of the dawn] cried [for the death of her son Memnon], the tears ran down her face immortal, like a river brimming aye: drenched was the dark earth round the corse. Nyx (the Night) grieved in her daughter's [Eos, here identified with Hemera] anguish, and Ouranos (Heaven) drew over all his stars a veil of mist and cloud, of love unto Erigeneia (the Lady of Light)."


Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. 408 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :

"The god [Helios the Sun] on high hurries his shining steeds across the old man’s [Ouranos'] body, and spreads light about the curving sky."


Greek Titles Transliteration Latin Spelling Translation
Ακμων
Ακμονιδες
Akmôn
Akmonides
Acmon
Acmonides
Untiring (akamatos),
Anvil (akmôn)

Sources:
  • Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  • Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
  • Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th BC
  • Greek Lyric I Alcaeus, Fragments - Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric II Alcman, Fragments - Greek Lyric C7th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric II Anacreon, Fragments - Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric III Simonides, Fragments - Greek Lyric C6th-5th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Greek Elegaic Theognis, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C6th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Agamemnon - Greek Tragedy C5th B.c.
  • Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Fragments - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aristophanes, The Birds - Greek Comedy C5th-4th B.C.
  • Plato, Cratylus - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Euthyphro - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Ion - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica - Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  • Callimachus, Fragments - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  • Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st B.C.
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy - Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  • The Orphic Hymns - Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. - C2nd A.D.
  • Orphica, Fragments - Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. - C2nd A.D.
  • Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Ovid, Fasti - Latin Poetry C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Cicero, De Natura Deorum - Latin Philosophy C1st B.C.
  • Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica - Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  • Apuleius, The Golden Ass - Latin Epic C2nd A.D.
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th A.D.
Other references not currently quoted here: Euripides Heracles 844

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Saturn Myth

ENCYCLOPEDIA

CRONUS (Kronos), a son of Uranus and Ge, and the youngest among the Titans. He was married to Rhea, by whom he became the father of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cheiron is also called a son of Cronus.

 (Hesiod. Theog. 137, 452, &c.; Apollod. i. 1. § 3, &c.)

At the instigation of his mother, Cronus unmanned his father for having thrown the Cyclopes, who were likewise his children by Ge, into Tartarus. Out of the blood thus shed sprang up the Erinnyes. When the Cyclopes were delivered from Tartarus, the government of the world was taken from Uranus and given to Cronus, who in his turn lost it through Zeus, as was predicted to him by Ge and Uranus. [Zeus.] The Romans identified their Saturnus with the Cronus of the Greeks.

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


 

PARENTAGE OF CRONUS


Hesiod, Theogony 126 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"She [Gaia] lay with Ouranos and bare deep-swirling Okeanos, Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Kronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire."


Simonides, Fragment 511 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C6th to 5th B.C.) :

"Kronos (Time) child of Ouranos (Sky)."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 1 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"[Ouranos the Sky] fathered other sons on Ge (Earth), namely the Titanes : Okeanos, Koios, Hyperion, Kreios, Iapetos, and Kronos the youngest; also daughters called Titanides : Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe, Dione, Theia."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 65. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"The Titanes had their dwelling in the land about Knossos [in Krete], at the place where even to this day men point out foundations of a house of Rhea and a cypress grove which has been consecrated to her from ancient times. The Titanes numbered six men and five women, being born, as certain writers of myths relate, of Ouranos (Sky) and Ge (Earth), but according to others, of one of the Kouretes and Titaia, from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. The males were Kronos, Hyperion, Koios, Iapetos, Krios and Okeanos . . . Each one of them was the discover of things of benefit to mankind, and because of the benefaction they conferred upon all men they were accorded honours and everlasting fame."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"From Aether and Terra [were born various abstractions] . . .
[From Caelum (Ouranos) and Terra (Gaia) were born ?] Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; the Titanes : Briareus, Gyes, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion, and Polus [Koios], Saturnus [Kronos], Ops [Rhea], Moneta [Mnemosyne], Dione." [N.B. Hyginus' Preface survives only in summary. The Titanes should be listed as children of Ouranos (Caelum) and Gaia (Terra) not Aither and Gaia, but the notation to this effect seems to have been lost in the transcription.]


CRONUS & THE CASTRATION OF URANUS

Hesiod, Theogony 147 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"She [Gaia the Earth] lay with Ouranos (Sky) and bare deep-swirling Okeanos, Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Kronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire. And again, she bare the Kyklopes, overbearing in spirit, Brontes, and Steropes and stubborn-hearted Arges. And again, three other sons were born of Gaia and Ouranos, great and doughty beyond telling, Kottos and Briareos and Gyes [the Hekatonkheires]. From their shoulders sprang a hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. For of all the children that were born of Gaia and Ouranos, these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father from the first. And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Gaia so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Ouranos rejoiced in his evil doing.And he [Ouranos] used to hide them all [the Hekatonkheires] away in a secret place of Gaia (Earth) so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light : and Ouranos (Sky) rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Gaia (Earth) groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart : `My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things.' So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Kronos the wily took courage and answered his dear mother : `Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of doing shameful things.' So he said : and vast Gaia (Earth) rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot. And Ouranos (Sky) came, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Gaia (Earth) spreading himself full upon her. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Gaia (Earth) received, and as the seasons moved round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great Gigantes [perhaps the Kouretes] with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphai whom they call Meliai all over the boundless earth. And so soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden [Aphrodite] . . .
But these sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos (Sky) used to call Titanes (Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards."


Hesiod, Theogony 20 ff :

"Kronos the crafty counsellor."


Plato, Euthyphro 5e (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"Men believe that Zeus . . . put his father [Kronos] in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children, and he in turn had mutilated his father [Ouranos] for similar reasons."


Plato, Republic 377e (trans. Shorey) :

“`There is, first of all,' I said, `the greatest lie about the things of greatest concernment, which was no pretty invention of him [Hesiod] who told how Ouranos did what Hesiod says he did to Kronos, and how Kronos in turn took his revenge; and then there are the doings and sufferings of Kronos at the hands of his son [Zeus]. Even if they were true I should not think that they ought to be thus lightly told to thoughtless young persons.'”


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 3 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"Ouranos (Sky) was the first to rule over the entire world. He married Ge (Earth) and sired first the Hekatonkheires, who were names Briareos, Gyes and Kottos. They were unsurpassed in both size and power, and each had a hundred hands and fifty heads. After these he sired the Kyklopes, by name Arges, Steropes, and Brontes, each of whom had one eye in his forehead. But Ouranos (Sky) bound these and threw them into Tartaros (a place in Haides’ realm as dark as Erebos, and as far away from the earth as the earth is from the sky), and fathered other sons on Ge, namely the Titanes : Okeanos, Koios, Hyperion, Kreios, Iapetos, and Kronos the youngest; also daughters called Titanides : Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe, Dione, Theia. Now Ge (Earth), distressed by the loss of her children into Tartaros, persuaded the Titanes to attack their father, and she gave Kronos a sickle made of adamant. So all of them except Okeanos set upon Ouranos (Sky), and Kronos cut off his genitals, tossing them into the sea. (From the drops of the flowing blood Erinyes were born, named Alekto, Tisiphone, Megaira.) Thus having overthrown Ouranos’ (Sky's) rule the Titanes retrieved their brothers from Tartaros and gave the power to Kronos."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 982 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"In the Keraunian Sea, fronting the Ionian Straits, there is a rich and spacious island, under the soil of which is said to lie (bear with me, Mousai; it gives me little pleasure to recall the old tale) the sickle used by Kronos to castrate his father Ouranos (Sky) . . . From this reaping-hook the island takes its name of Drepane, the sacred Nurse of the Phaiakians, who by the same token trace their ancestry to Ouranos (Sky)."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 ff :

"He [the poet Orpheus] sang of . . . How, in the beginning, Ophion and Eurynome, daughter of Okeanos, governed the world from snow-clad Olympos; how they were forcibly supplanted, Ophion by Kronos, Eurynome by Rhea; of their fall into the waters of Okeanos." [N.B. Ophion and Eurynome might be Ouranos and Gaia or Okeanos and Tethys.]


Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 43 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"The builders made strong wooden towers with battlements [building the city of Zankle in Sicily], and placed them around the sickle of Kronos--for there in a cave is hidden under the earth the sickle with which he cut off his father’s genitals [the sickle was reputedly buried near where the city of Zankle (the Sickle) was founded]."


Lycophron, Alexandra 760 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"The island [Drepane island of the Phaiakians] abhorred by Kronos--the isle of the Sickle that severed his [Ouranos’] privy parts."


Strabo, Geography 14. 2. 7 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Since they [the Telkhines] excelled in workmanship . . . they first came from Krete to Kypros, and then to Rhodes; and that they were the first to work iron and brass, and in fact fabricated the scythe for Kronos."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 23. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"[Near Bolina in Akhaia] a cape juts out into the sea, and of it is told a story how Kronos threw into the sea here the sickle with which he mutilated his father Ouranos (Sky). For this reason they call the cape Drepanon. [N.B. drepanon is the Greek word for 'sickle.']"


Virgil, Georgics 2. 406 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :

"Lopping it [the vine] with Saturnus' [Kronos'] crooked knife and pruning it into shape."


Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 24 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :

"Another theory also, and that a scientific one, has been the source of a number of deities, who clad in human form have furnished the poets with legends and have filled man’s life with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example, an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece that Caelus [Ouranos the Sky] was mutilated by his son Saturnus [Kronos] . . . Their meaning was that the highest element of celestial ether or fire [Ouranos the Sky], which by itself generates all things, is devoid of that bodily part which required union with another for the work of procreation."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 222 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"[A complliment givent to a beautiful woman :] `Can it be that Kronos, after the first Kypris [Aphrodite born from Ouranos’ castrated genitals], again cut his father’s loins with unmanning sickle until the foam got a mind and made the water shape itself into a selfperfected birth, delivered of a younger Aphrodite from the sea?'"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 43 ff :

"[The history of the world inscribed on tablets by the primordial god Phanes :] The first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Kronos accomplished: when he cut off his father’s [Ouranos'] male plowshare, and sowed the teeming deep with seed on the unsown back of the daughterbegetting sea (Thalassa)."


Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 18. 223 ff :

"Kronos still dripping held the emasculating sickleblade, after he had cut off the manly crop of his father’s [Ouranos’] plow and robbed him of the Mother’s [Gaia’s] bed to which he was hastening."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 21. 252 ff :

"[The Indian King Deriades speaks :] `I know nothing of Kronos, or of Kronides [Zeus] who destroyed his father, nor Kronos the master-deceiver, who swallowed his own children, and shore away from Aither [Ouranos] the hive of begetting love.'"

CANNIBAL CRONUS & THE BIRTH OF HIS CHILDREN

Homer, Iliad 15. 187 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

"[Poseidon addresses Iris :] We are three brothers born by Rheia to Kronos, Zeus, and I, and the third is Haides, lord of the dead men."


Hesiod, Theogony 453 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"But Rhea was subject in love to Kronos and bare splendid children, Hestia, Demeter, and gold-shod Hera and strong Haides . . . and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker [Poseidon], and wise Zeus . . . These great Kronos swallowed as each came forth from the womb to his mother's knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Ouranos (Heaven) should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Sky) that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus.Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children : and unceasing grief seized Rhea. But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men, then she besought her own dear parents, Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Sky), to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution might overtake great, crafty Kronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told her all that was destined to happen touching Kronos the king and his stout-hearted son. So they sent her to Lyetos, to the rich land of Krete, when she was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children. Him did vast Gaia (Earth) receive from Rhea in wide Krete to nourish and to bring up. Thither came Gaia carrying him swiftly through the black night to Lyktos first, and took him in her arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aigeion; but to [Kronos] the mightily ruling son of Ouranos (Sky), the earlier king of the gods, she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly: wretch! he knew not in his heart that in place of the stone his son was left behind, unconquered and untroubled, and that he was soon to overcome him by force and might and drive him from his honours, himself to reign over the deathless gods. After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly, and as the years rolled on, great Kronos the wily was beguiled by the deep suggestions of Gaia (Earth), and brought up again his offspring, vanquished by the arts and might of his own son, and he vomited up first the stone which he had swallowed last. And Zeus set it fast in the wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under the glens of Parnassos, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men. And he set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father, sons of Ouranos [the Hekatonkheires and Kyklopes] whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And they remembered to be grateful to him for his kindness, and gave him thunder and the glowing thunderbolt and lightening: for before that, huge Gaia (Earth) had hidden these. In them he trusts and rules over mortals and immortals."


Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff :

"The son of Kronos [Zeus] and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea bare from union with Kronos."


Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 20 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) :

"She [Hestia] was the first-born child of wily Kronos and youngest too." [N.B. Hestia was the first-born child of Kronos and so the first to be devoured and last disgorged (i.e. her rebirth). Hence the poet describes her as both the oldest and youngest child.]


Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 42 ff :

"[Hera] whom wily (agkylometes) Kronos with her mother Rheia did beget."


Corinna, Fragment 654 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"The Koureites hid the holy babe of the goddess [Rhea] in a cave without the knowledge of crooked-witted [koulomeitas] Kronos, when blessed [makera] Rhea stole him and won great honour from the immortals."


Plato, Euthyphro 5e (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"Men believe that Zeus . . . put his father [Kronos] in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 4 - 5 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :



"But Kronos once again [after deposing Ouranos] bound the Kyklopes and confined them in Tartaros. He then married his sister Rhea. Because both Ge (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) had given him prophetic warning that his rule would be overthrown by a son of his own, he took to swallowing his children at birth. He swallowed his first-born daughter Hestia, then Demeter and Hera, and after them Plouton and Poseidon. Angered by this, Rhea, when she was heavy with Zeus, went off to Krete and gave birth to him there in a cave on Mount Dikte . . . the armed Kouretes stood guard over him in the cave, banging their spears against their shields to prevent Kronos from hearing the infant’s voice. Rhea meanwhile gave Kronos a stone wrapped in the swaddling-cloths to swallow in place of his newborn son. When Zeus was grown, he engaged Okeanos’ daughter Metis (Counsel) as a colleague. She gave Kronos a drug, by which he was forced to vomit forth first the stone and then the children he had swallowed."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"He [Orpheus] sang of . . . How, in the beginning, Ophion and Eurynome, daughter of Okeanos, governed the world from snow-clad Olympos; how they were forcibly supplanted, Ophion by Kronos, Eurynome by Rhea; of their fall into the waters of Okeanos; and how their successors ruled the happy Titan gods when Zeus in his Diktaian cave was still a child, with childish thoughts, before the earthborn Kyklopes had given him the bolt, the thunder and lightning that form his glorious armament today."


Callimachus, Hymn 1 to Zeus 50 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"And lustily round thee [the baby Zeus] danced the Kouretes a war-dance, beating their armour, that Kronos might hear with his ears the din of the shield, but not thine infant noise."


Lycophron, Alexandra 1191 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"Him [Zeus] who is lord of Ophion’s throne. But he [Zeus] shall bring thee to the plain of his nativity [Thebes], that land celebrated above others by the Greeks, where his mother [Rhea], skilled in wrestling, having cast into Tartaros the former queen [Eurynome, wife of Ophion], delivered her of him [Zeus] in travail of secret birth, escaping the child-devouring unholy feast of her spouse [Kronos]; and he fattened not his belly with food, but swallowed instead the stone, wrapped in limb-fitting swaddling clothes: savage Kentauros [Kronos as father of the centaur Kheiron], tomb of his own offspring."


Aratus, Phaenomena 27 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek astronomical poem C3rd B.C.) :

"When in olden days he [Zeus] played as a child in fragrant Dikton, near the hill of Ida, they [the Nymphai Helike & Kynosoura] set him in a cave and nurtured him for the space of a year, what time the Diktaioi Kouretes were deceiving Kronos. Now the one men call by name Kynosoura and the other Helike."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 70. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"Regarding the birth of Zeus and the manner in which he came to be king, there is no agreement. Some say that he succeeded to the kingship after Kronos passed from among men into the company of the gods, not by overcoming his father with violence, but in the manner prescribed by custom and justly, having been judged worthy of that honour. But others recount a myth, which runs as follows: There was delivered to Kronos an oracle regarding the birth of Zeus which stated that the son who would be born to him would wrest the kingship from him by force. Consequently Kronos time and again did away with the children whom he begot; but Rhea, grieved as she was, and yet lacking the power to change her husband’s purpose, when she had given birth to Zeus, concealed him in Ide, as it is called, and, without the knowledge of Kronos, entrusted the rearing of him to the Kouretes of Mt Ide."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 68. 1 :

"To Kronos and Rhea, we are told, were born Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, and Zeus, Poseidon, and Haides."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 79. 7 :

"They [the Nymphai Ida & Adrasteia] nurtured Zeus of old without the knowledge of his father Kronos . . . And Aratos [poet C3rd B.C.] agrees with this account when he states in his poem on the stars : ‘. . . When he [Zeus] was babe in fragrant Dikton near thee Idaian Mount, they set him in a cave and nurtured him a year, the while Kouretes Diktaioi practised deceit on Kronos.'"


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 65. 1 :

"The Kouretes also invented swords and helmets and the war-dance, by means of which they raised a great alarum and deceived Kronos. And we are told that, when Rhea, the mother of Zeus, entrusted him to them unbeknown to Kronos his father, they took him under their care and saw to his nurture."


Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 11 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"The mythical story of the birth of Zeus; in this they introduced Kronos as accustomed to swallow his children immediately after their birth, and Rhea as trying to keep her travail secret and, when the child was born, to get it out of the way and save its life by every means in her power; and to accomplish this it is said that she took as helpers the Kouretes, who, by surrounding the goddess with tambourines and similar noisy instruments and with war-dance and uproar, were supposed to strike terror into Kronos and without his knowledge to steal his child away."


Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 19 :

"Some call the Korybantes sons of Kronos."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 33. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"It is a hopeless task to enumerate all the peoples who claim that Zeus was born and brought up among them. The Messenians have their share in the story : for they too say that the god was brought up among them and that his nurses were Ithome and Neda, the river having received its name from the latter, while the former, Ithome, gave her name to the mountain. These Nymphai are said to have bathed Zeus here, after he was stolen by the Kouretes owing to the danger that threatened from his father [Kronos], and it is said that it [the fountain Klepsydra on Mt Ithome in Messenia] has its name from the Kouretes’ theft."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 6 :

"As for the Olympiakos Games, the most learned antiquarians of Elis say that Kronos was the first king of heaven, and that in his honour a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Daktyloi of Ida, who are the same as those called Kouretes."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 8. 2 :

"[Near the town of Nestane in Arkadia there is] a well called Aren (Lamb). The following story is told by the Arkadians. When Rhea had given birth to Poseidon, she laid him in a flock for him to live there with the lambs, and the spring too received its name just because the lambs pastured around it. Rhea, it is said, declared to Kronos that she had given birth to a horse, and gave him a foal to swallow instead of the child, just as later she gave him in place of Zeus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 36. 2 :

"Mount Thamasios (Wonderful) lies beyond the river Maloitas [in Arkadia], and the Methydrians hold that when Rhea was pregnant with Zeus, she came to this mountain and enlisted as her allies, in case Kronos should attack her, Hopladamos and his few Gigantes [the Kouretes]. They allow that she gave birth to her son on some part of Mount Lykaios, but they claim that here Kronos was deceived, and here took place the substitution of a stone for the child that is spoken of in the Greek legend. On the summit of the mountain is Rhea’s Cave, into which no human beings may enter save only the women who are sacred to the goddess."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 2. 7 :

"On entering [the temple of Hera at Plataia, Boiotia] you see Rhea carrying to Kronos the stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, as though it were the babe to which she had given birth."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 41. 6 :

"There is beyond the city [of Khaironeia, Boiotia] a crag called Petrakhos. Here they hold that Kronos was deceived, and received from Rhea a stone instead of Zeus, and there is a small image of Zeus on the summit of the mountain."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 24. 6 :

"Ascending [through the oracular shrine of Delphoi, Phokis] you come to a stone of no large size [the omphalos]. Over it every day they pour olive oil, and at each feast they place on it unworked wool. There is also an opinion about this stone, that it was given to Kronos instead of his child, and that Kronos vomited it up again."


Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 36 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"When Rhea, fearing Kronos, hid Zeus in the Kretan cavern, a goat [Amaltheia] offered her udder and gave him nourishment. By the will of Rhea a Golden Dog guarded the goat. After Zeus drove out the Titanes and deprived Kronos of power, he changed the goat into an immortal, there is a representation of her among the stars to this day."


Oppian, Cynegetica 3. 7 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) :

"The Kouretes were the nurses of the infant Zeus, the mighty son of Kronos, what time Rhea concealed his birth and carried away the newly-born child from Kronos, his sire implacable, and placed him in the vales of Krete. And when [Kronos] the son of Ouranos (Sky) beheld the lusty young child he transformed the first glorious guardians of Zeus and in vengeance made the Kouretes wild beasts. And since by the devising of the god Kronos exchanged their human shape and put upon them the form of Lions, thenceforth by the boon of Zeus they greatly lord it over the wild beasts which dwell upon the hills, and under the yoke they draw the terrible swift car of Rhea who lightens the pangs of birth."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"From Saturnus [Kronos] and Ops [Rhea] [were born] : Vesta [Hestia], Ceres [Demeter], Iuno [Hera], Iuppiter [Zeus], Pluto [Hades], Neptunus [Poseidon]."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 139 :

"After Opis [Rhea] had borne Jove [Zeus] by Saturnus [Kronos], Juno [Hera] asked her to give him to her, since Saturnus and cast Orcus [Hades] under Tartarus, and Neptunus [Poseidon] under the sea, because he knew that his son would rob him of the kingdom. When he had asked Opis for what she had borne, in order to devour it, Opis showed him a stone wrapped up like a baby; Saturnus devoured it. When he realized what he had done, he started to hunt for Jove throughout the earth. Juno, however, took Jove to the island of Crete, and Amalthea, the child’s nurse, hung him in a cradle from a tree, so that he could be found neither in heaven nor on earth nor in the sea. And lest the cries of the baby be heard, she summoned youths and gave them small brazen shields and spears, and bade them go around the tree making a noise. In Greek they are called Curetes; others call them Corybantes; these in Italy, however are called Lares."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 43 :

"Milky Way . . . Others say that at the time Ops [Rhea] brought to Saturnus [Kronos] the stone, pretending it was a child, he bade her offer milk to it; when she pressed her breast, the milk that was caused to flow formed the circle which we mentioned above."


Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 497 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Gods have loved their sisters; yes, indeed! Why Saturnus [Kronos] married Ops [Rhea], his kin by blood . . . But the gods above are laws unto themselves."


Ovid, Fasti 4. 197 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Saturnus [Kronos] received this oracle: ‘Best of kings, you shall be knocked from power by a son.’ Jabbed by fear, he devours his offspring as each was born, and entombs them in his bowels. Rhea often complained of much pregnancy and no motherhood, and mourned her fertility. Jove [Zeus] was born (trust antiquity’s testimony, do not disturb inherited belief) : a stone, concealed in cloth, settled in the god’s gullet; so the father was fated to be tricked. For a long time steep Ida booms its clanging noise so the wordless infant may wail safely. Shields or empty helmets are pounded with sticks, the Curetes’ or Corybantes’ task. The truth hid."


Ovid, Fasti 6. 285 ff :

"Juno [Hera] and Ceres [Demeter], they recount, were born from Ops [Rhea] by Saturnus’ [Kronos’] seed. Vesta [Hestia] was the third."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 110 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"[Hera addresses Apate, the spirit of deceit :] `Lend me also that girdle or many colours, which Rheia once bound about her flanks when she deceived her husband! I bring no pretrified shape for my Kronion [Zeus], I do not trick my husband with a wily stone.'"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 43 ff :

"[The history of the world inscribed on tablets by the primordial god Phanes :] The first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Kronos accomplished: when he cut off his father’s [Ouranos'] male plowshare, and sowed the teeming deep with seed on the unsown back of the daughterbegetting sea (Thalassa); how he opened a gaping throat to receive a stony son, when he made a meal of the counterfeit body of a pretended Zeus; how the stone played midwife to the brood of imprisoned children, and shot out the burden of the parturient gullet [the stone was last swallowed and the first disgorged by Kronos]. But when the stormfoot Hora (Season), Phaethon’s [Helios’] handmaid, had seen the fiery shining victory of Zeus at war and the hailstorm snowstorm conflict of Kronos, she looked at the next tablet in its turn."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14. 30 ff :

"[The Kouretes] had surrounded Zeus a newborn babe in the cavern which fostered his breeding, and danced about him shield in hand, the deceivers, raising wild songs which echoed among the rocks and maddened the air - the noise of the clanging brass resounded in the ears of Kronos high among the clouds, and concealed the infancy of Kronion with drummings."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 25. 553 ff :

"Kybele [Rhea] also was depicted [on the shield of Dionysos], newly delivered; she seemed to hold in her arms pressed to her bosom a mock-child she had not borne, all worked by the artist’s hands; aye, cunning Rheia offered to her callous consort [Kronos] a babe of stone, a spiky heavy dinner. There was the father swallowing the stony son, the thing shaped like humanity, in his voracious maw, and making his meal of another pretended Zeus. There he was again in heavy labour, with the stone inside him, bringing up all those children squeezed together and disgorging the burden from his pregnant throat."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 50 ff :

"Kronos who banqueted on his own young children in cannibal wise."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 28. 252 ff :

"The pyrrhic dance [of the Kouretes] raised a noise in the ears of Kronos, and clanged sword on shield on Mount Ida, and rang out a valiant din to deceive the enemy, as he screened the stealthy nurture of growing Zeus . . . [The Kourete Akmon] holding Korybantic shield, which had often held in its hollow baby Zeus asleep among the mountains: yes, a little cave once was the home of Zeus, where the sacred goat [Amaltheia] played the nurse to him with her milky udder for a makeshift, and cleverly let him suck the strange milk, when the noise of shaken shields resounded beaten on the back with tumbling steel to hide the little child with their clanging. Their help allowed Rheia to wrap up that stone of deceit, and gave it to Kronos for a meal in place of Kronides [Zeus]."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 65 ff :

"Now first appeared the golden crop of men [the Golden Race of Man] brought forth in the image of the gods, with the roots of their stock in the earth. And these dwelt in the city of Beroe, that primordial seat which Kronos himself builded, at the time when invited by clever Rheia he set that jagged supper before his voracious throat, and having the heavy weight of that stone within him to play the deliverer’s part, he shot out the whole generation of his tormented children. Gaping wide, he sucked up the storming flood of a whole river, and swallowed it in his bubbling chest to ease his pangs, then threw of the burden of his belly; so one after another his pregnant throat pushed up and disgorged his twiceborn sons through the delivering channel of his gullet. Zeus was then a child, still a baby methinks; not yet the lightning flashed and cleft the hot clouds with many a dancing leap, not yet bolts of Zeus were shot to help in the Titanes’ war, not yet the rainy sound of thunderclaps roared heavily with bang and boom through colliding clouds."

Cronus & Rhea | Greek vase painting
T6.1 CRONUS,
RHEA
Cronus as Saturday | Roman mosaic
Z50.1G CRONUS
AS SATURDAY

CRONUS, PHILYRA & THE BIRTH OF CHIRON

Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 6 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 1. 554) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

"The author of the War of the Giants says that Kronos took the shape of a horse and lay with Philyra, the daughter of Okeanos. Through this cause Kheiron was born a kentauros: his wife was Khariklo."


Pindar, Pythian Ode 3. 1 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"Khiron the son of Philyra . . . would that he might regain the life he left long since, that man of widespread power, the son of Kronos son of Ouranos."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"The Titanes had children . . . Kheiron, a double-formed kentauros, was born to Kronos and Philyra."


Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1231 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :

"By nightfall they [the Argonauts] were passing the Isle of Philyra. This was where Kronos son of Ouranos, deceiving his consort Rhea, lay with Philyra daughter of Okeanos in the days when he ruled the Titanes in Olympos and Zeus was still a child, tended in the Kretan cave by the Kouretes of Ida. But Kronos and Philyra were surprised in the very act by the goddess Rhea. Whereupon Kronos leapt out of bed and galloped off in the form of a long-maned stallion, while Philyra in her shame left the place, deserting her old haunts, and came to the long Pelasgian ridges. There she gave birth to the monstrous Kheiron, half horse and half divine, the offspring of a lover in questionable shape."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"From Saturnus [Kronos] and Philyra [were born] : Chiron, Dolops."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 13 :

"When Saturnus [Kronos] was hunting Jove [Zeus] throughout the earth, assuming the form of a steed he lay with Philyra, daughter of Oceanus. By him she bore Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the first to invent the art of healing. After Philyra saw that she had borne a strange species, she asked Jove to change her into another form, and she was transformed into the tree which is called the linden."


Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 126 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Saturnus [Kronos], as a horse begot the centaur Chiron."


Virgil, Georgics 3. 92 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :

"Such, too [i.e. a fine stallion], was Saturnus [Kronos] himself, when at his wife’s [Rheia's] coming he fled swiftly, flinging his horse’s mane over his shoulders, and with shrill neigh filled the heights of Pelion."


Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7. 197 (trans. Rackham) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :

"Chiron the son of Saturnus [Kronos] and Philyra."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 336 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"[The monster Typhoeus boasts to Zeus of his intentions should he conquer heaven :] And cannibal Kronos I will drag up once more to the light, another brother, to help me in my task, out of the underground abyss; I will break those constraining chains, and bring back the Titanes to heaven, and settle under the same roof in the sky the Kyklopes, sons of Gaia."


Suidas s.v. Aphroi (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :

"Aphroi (Africans) : Name of a people; the Karthaginians. [They are descended] from Aphros who was king of Libye, the son of Kronos out of Philyra." [N.B. In Greco-Roman mosaic Aphros is one of two sea-centaurs who carry Aphrodite ashore following her birth.]

CRONUS KING OF THE GOLDEN AGE

Kronos ruled over the first generation of mankind during the so-called Golden Age of Man, a time of prosperity, peace and general ease. When Zeus came to power these had been replaced by the Silver, who in turn were succeeded by the Bronze, the Hero, and the Iron races. In the time of Kronos it was said the animals spoke with a human voice. See also "Cronus King of Elysium" (section below).


Hesiod, Works and Days 109 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"First of all the deathless gods who dwell on Olympos made a Golden Race of mortal men who lived in the time of Kronos when he was reigning in heaven. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint. They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods. But after earth had covered this generation--they are called Pure Spirits (daimones hagnoi) dwelling on the earth (epikhthonioi), and are kindly, delivering from harm, and guardians of mortal men; for they roam everywhere over the earth, clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and cruel deeds, givers of wealth [i.e. agricultural bounty]; for this royal right also they received."


Timotheus, Fragment 796 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"The young Zeus is king, and it was in ancient times that Kronos was ruler."


Plato, Gorgias 525a ff (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

[Plato synchronises the stories of Kronos as king of the Golden Age and Kronos, king of Elysium, in this passage. See the Elsyium section below.]


Plato, Hipparchus 229b (trans. Lamb) :

"At all other times [i.e. except during the rule of the despots] the Athenians lived very much as in the reign of Kronos [i.e. in a Golden Age]."


Plato, Laws 713a (trans. Bury) :

"[Plato employs the myth of the Golden Age of Kronos in his description of an ideal state ruled by a philospher-elite :] Long ages before even cities existed . . . there existed in the time of Kronos, it is said, a most prosperous government and settlement . . . Well, then, tradition tells us how blissful was the life of men in that age, furnished with everything in abundance, and of spontaneous growth. And the cause thereof is said to have been this : Kronos was aware of the fact that no human being is capable of having irresponsible control of all human affairs without becoming filled with pride and injustice; so, pondering this fact, he then appointed as kings and rulers for our cities, not men, but beings of a race that was nobler and more divine, namely, Daimones (Spirits). He acted just as we now do in the case of sheep and herds of tame animals: we do not set oxen as rulers over oxen, or goats over goats, but we, who are of a nobler race, ourselves rule over them. In like manner the god, in his love for humanity, set over us at that time the nobler race of Daimones who, with much comfort to themselves and much to us, took charge of us and furnished peace and modesty and orderliness and justice without stint, and thus made the tribes of men free from feud and happy. And even today this tale has a truth to tell, namely, that wherever a State has a mortal, and no god, for ruler, there the people have no rest from ills and toils; and it deems that we ought by every means to imitate the life of the age of Kronos, as tradition paints it." [Cf. The Daimones of Hesiod's Works and Days above.]


Plato, The Statesman 269a - 274d (trans. Fowler) :

"[Plato employs the myth of the Golden Age of Kronos in a philosophical discussion :]
Stranger : We have often heard the tale of the reign of Kronos . . . And how about the story that the ancient folk were earthborn and not begotten of one another?
Younger Sokrates : That is one of the old tales, too . . . Stranger : In the reign of Kronos . . . all the fruits of the earth sprang up of their own accord for men . . . god himself was their shepherd, watching over them, just as man, being an animal of different and more divine nature than the rest, now tends the lower species of animals. And under his care there were no states, nor did men possess wives or children . . . So there were no states or families, but they had fruits in plenty from the trees and other plants, which the earth furnished them of its own accord, without help from agriculture. And they lived for the most part in the open air, without clothing or bedding; for the climate was tempered for their comfort, and the abundant grass that grew up out of the earth furnished them soft couches. That, Sokrates, was the life of men in the reign of Kronos; but the life of the present age, which is said to be the age of Zeus, you know by your own experience . . . The foster children of Kronos, had all this leisure and the ability to converse not only with human beings but also with beasts . . .
[But in the subsequent reign of Zeus,] men, deprived of the care of the deity [Kronos] who had possessed and tended us, since most of the beasts who were by nature unfriendly had grown fierce, and they themselves were feeble and unprotected, were ravaged by the beasts and were in the first ages still without resources or skill . . . and that is the reason why the gifts of the gods that are told of in the old traditions were given us with the needful information and instruction,--fire by Prometheus, the arts by Hephaistos and the goddess [Athena] who is his fellow-artisan, seeds and plants by other deities."


Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 1 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :

"[Animals could speak like men] in the reign of Kronos. But anon, they say, Zeus changed all things to the contrary and in no happy mood, Zeus, the just, dispensing injustice, he robbed four-footed things of speech and, as if we had not strength enough even to bestow on others, he changed this hapless race to human kind . . . This is the tale of Aesop of Sardis, whom, when he sang his story, the Delphinans received in no kindly wise."


Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 192 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) :

"[In the Golden Age when Kronos ruled :] It was the time when birds and creatures of the sea and four-footed animals could talk in the same way as the Promethean clay . . (lacuna) in the time of Kronos, and even before. Just is Zeus, yet unjust was his ruling when he deprived the animals of their speech, and--as though we were in a position to give part of our voice to others--diverted it to the race of men."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"Kronos, since he was the eldest of the Titanes, became king and caused all men who were his subjects to change from a rude way of living to civilized life, and for this reason he received great approbation and visited many regions of the inhabited earth. Among all he met he introduced justice and sincerity of the soul, and this is why the tradition has come down to later generations that he men of Kronos’ time were good-hearted, altogether guileless, and blest with felicity. His kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honour; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturnus] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions elsewhere that the Carthaginians sacrificed children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honour of this god and many places bore his name. And because of the exceptional obedience to laws no injustice was committed by any one at nay time and all the subjects of the rule of Kronos lived a life of blessedness, in the unhindered enjoyment of every pleasure. To this the poet Hesiod also bears witness in the following words: ‘And they who were Kronos’ day, what time he reigned in heaven, lived like gods, no care in heart, remote and free from ills and toils severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares; old age lay not upon their limbs, but they, equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed endless delight of feasting far from ills, and when death came, they sank in it as in a sleep. And many other things were theirs; grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them fruit abundantly and without stint; and glad of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout the earth, in midst of blessing manifold, rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed gods.’ This then, is what the myths have to say about Kronos."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Kronos was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race."


Plutarch, Life of Aristides 24. 2 (trans. Perrin) (Greek historian C1st to C2nd A.D.) :

"Men of old hymned the praises of the age of Kronos--the golden age."


Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 88 (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"The Golden Age (Aetas Aurea) was that first age [of mankind] which unconstrained, with heart and soul, obedient to no law, gave honour to good faith and righteousness. No punishment they knew, no fear; they read no penalties engraved on plates of bronze; no suppliant throng with dread beheld their judge; no judges had they then, but lived secure. No pine had yet, on its high mountain felled, descended to the sea to find strange lands afar; men knew no shores except their own. No battlements their cities yet embraced, no trumpets straight, no horns of sinuous brass, no sword, no helmet then--no need of arms; the world untroubled lived in leisured ease. Tellus (Earth) [Gaia] willingly, untouched, ynot wounded yet by hoe or plough, gave all her bounteous store; men were content with nature’s food unforced, and gathered strawberries on the mountainside and cherries and the clutching bramble’s fruit, and acorns fallen from Jove’s [Zeus’] spreading tree. Springtime it was, always, for ever spring; the gentle zephyrs with their breathing balm caressed the flowers that sprang without a seed; anon the earth untilled brought forth her fruits, the unhallowed fields lay gold with heavy grain, and streams of milk and springs of nectar flowed and yellow honey dripped from boughs of green. When Saturnus [Kronos] fell to dark Tartara and Jove [Zeus] reigned upon the earth, the Silver Race (Proles Argentea) replaced the Gold, inferior, yet in worth above he tawny bronze."


Virgil, Georgics 2. 536 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :

"Before the Cretan king [Zeus] held scepter, and before a godless race banqueted on slaughtered bullocks, such was the life golden Saturnus [Kronos] lived on earth, while yet none had heard the clarion blare, none the sword blades ring, as they were laid on the stubborn anvil."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 65 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Now first appeared the golden crop of men [the Golden Race of Mankind] brought forth in the image of the gods, with the roots of their stock in the earth. And these dwelt in the [Phoenician] city of Beroe, that primordial seat which Kronos himself builded."

ZEUS WRESTLES CRONUS FOR THE THRONE

Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 10 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"Now some say that Zeus wrestled here [at Olympia, Elis] with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honour of his victory over Kronos. The record of victors include Apollon, who outran Hermes and beat Ares at boxing."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 2. 2 :

"The Olympic games . . . are traced back to a time earlier than the human race, the story being that Kronos and Zeus wrestled there, and that the Kouretes were the first to race at Olympia."

CRONUS & THE WAR OF THE TITANS

Homer, Iliad 14. 203 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

"Okeanos, whence the gods have risen, and Tethys our mother who brought me [Hera] up kindly in their own house, and cared for me and took me from Rheia, at that time when Zeus of the wide brows drove Kronos underneath the earth and the barren water."


Hesiod, Theogony 390 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"The Olympian Lightener [Zeus] called all the deathless gods to great Olympos, and said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titanes, he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods; he said, too, that the god who under Kronos had gone without position or privilege should under him be raised to these, according to justice."


Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff :

"[Zeus] the son of Kronos and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea bare from union with Kronos, brought them [the Hekatonkheires and Kyklopes] up again to the light at Gaia's (Earth's) advising. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves. For the Titan gods and as many as sprang from Kronos had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titanes from high Othrys, but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rhea bare in union with Kronos, from Olympos. So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced . . . the father of men and gods spoke amongst them : `Hear me, bright children of Gaia and Ouranos, that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Kronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and face the Titanes in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels.'
So he said. And blameless Kottos answered him again : `. . . And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titanes in hard battle.' So he said, and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before . . . [Zeus then released the giants from Tartaros.]
A nd they all, both male and female [gods], stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Kronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebos beneath the earth . . . And amongst the foremost Kottos and Briareos and Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titanes with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartaros . . . There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There Gyes and Kottos and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis."


Hesiod, Theogony 53 ff :

"And he [Zeus] was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Kronos."


Aeschylus, Agamemnon 168 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :

"He [Ouranos] who once was mighty, swelling with insolence for every fight, he shall not even be named as having ever existed; and he [Kronos] who arose later, he has met his overthrower [Zeus] and is past and gone."


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 200 ff :

"When first the heavenly powers (daimones) [the Titanes and Olympian gods] were moved to wrath, and mutual dissension was stirred up among them--some bent on casting Kronos from his seat so Zeus, in truth, might reign; others, eager for the contrary end, that Zeus might never win mastery over the gods--it was then that I [Prometheus], although advising them for the best, was unable to persuade the Titanes, children of Ouranos (Heaven) and Khthon (Earth); but they, disdaining counsels of craft, in the pride of their strength thought to gain the mastery without a struggle and by force. Often my mother Themis, or Gaia (Earth) (though one form, she had many names), had foretold to me the way in which the future was fated to come to pass. That it was not by brute strength nor through violence, but by guile that those who should gain the upper hand were destined to prevail. And though I argued all this to them, they did not pay any attention to my words. With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel that the cavernous gloom (melanbathês) of Tartaros now hides ancient (palaigenês) Kronos and his allies within it. Thus I helped [Zeus] the tyrant of the gods . . . As soon as he had seated himself upon his father's throne, he immediately assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper powers."


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 955 ff :

"Have I [the Titan Prometheus] not seen two sovereigns [Ouranos and Kronos] cast out from these heights [of heaven]?"


Aeschylus, Fragment 282 (from Papyri Oxyrhynchus) (trans. Lloyd-Jones) :

"[Dike, the goddess of justice, speaks : ] And he [Zeus] has his seat upon his father’s very throne, having overcome Kronos by means of Justice (Dike); for Zeus can now boast, since his father began the quarrel, that he paid him back with Justice on his side. That is why Zeus has done me great honour, because after being attacked he paid him back, not unjustly. I sit in glory by the throne of Zeus."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 6 - 7 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"When Zeus was grown, he engaged Okeanos’ daughter Metis (Counsel) as a colleague. She gave Kronos a drug, by which he was forced to vomit forth first the stone and then the children he had swallowed. With them Zeus fought a war against Kronos and the Titanes. After ten years of fighting Ge prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners down in Tartaros as his allies. He thereupon slew their jail-keeper Kampe, and freed them from their bonds. In return the Kyklopes gave Zeus thunder, lightning, and a thunderbolt, as well as a helmet for Plouton and a trident for Poseidon. Armed with these the three gods overpowered the Titanes, confined them in Tartaros, and put the Hekatonkheires in charge of guarding them."


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 6 Fragment 4 (from Tertullian On the Crown 13. 4) (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"Pherecydes [C6th or 5th B.C.] records that Saturnus [Kronos] was the first, before all others, to wear a crown, and Diodoros relates that, after he had defeated the Titanes, Jupiter [Zeus] was rewarded by the rest with this same distinction."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 150 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"After Juno [Hera] saw that Epaphus [or perhaps Dionysos], born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom, she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titanes to drive Jove [Zeus] from the kingdom and restore it to Saturnus [Kronos]. When they tried to mount tot heaven, Jove [Zeus] with the help of Minerva [Athena], Apollo, and Diana [Artemis], cast them headlong into Tartarus."


Ovid, Fasti 3. 793 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"Saturnus [Kronos] was thrust from his realm by Jove [Zeus]. In anger he stirs the mighty Titanes to arms and seeks the assistance owed by fate. There was a shocking monster born of Mother Terra (Earth), a bull, whose back half was a serpent . . . Whoever fed the bull’s guts to consuming flames was destined to defeat the eternal gods. Briareus [here an ally of Kronos] slays it with an adamantine axe and prepares to feed the flames its innards. Jupiter commands the birds to grab them; the kite brought them to him."


Seneca, Hercules Furens 965 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :

"[Herakles driven mad by Hera, threatens the gods of heaven :] I’ll free Saturnus [Kronos] from his bonds, and against my unfilial father’s [Zeus'] lawless sway I’ll loose my grandsire. Let the Titanes prepare war, with me to lead their rage."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 43 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"[The history of the world inscribed on tablets by the primordial god Phanes :] The first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all things in one . . . the fiery shining victory of Zeus at war and the hailstorm snowstorm conflict of Kronos."


Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 18. 223 ff :

"[Zeus] in his first youth battered the earthborn Titanes for Olympos, when he was only a boy . . . Kronos still dripping held the emasculating sickleblade, after he had cut off the manly crop of his father’s [Ouranos’] plow and robbed him of the Mother’s [Gaia’s] bed to which he was hastening, and warred against your sire at the head of the Titanes. Broadbeard Kronos fanned the flame of Enyo (War) as he cast icy spears against Kronion [Zeus], shooting his cold watery shafts: sharp pointed arrows of hail were shot from the sky. But Zeus armed himself with more fires than Helios (the Sun) and melted the petrified water with hotter sparks."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 264 ff :

"[Zeus] killed that great monster [Kampe] the snaky Enyo [War Goddess] of Kronos." [N.B. Kampe was the dragon set by Kronos to guard the the Hekatonkheires and Kyklopes locked away in Tartaros]."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 230 ff :

"The singer wove his lay beside the mixing-bowl, how the older Titanes armed themselves against Olympos. He sang the true victory of Zeus potent in the Heights, how broadbeard Kronos sank under the thunderbolt, and Zeus sealed him deep in the dark Tartarean pit, armed in vain with the watery weapons of the storm."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 31. 264 ff :

"Hera the Titan’s daughter took strong part in the war against Kronos her father and helped Zeus in his fight."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 110 ff :

"Let there not be intestine war in heaven once gain, after that conflict with Kronos which threatened Olympos: let me not see another war after the affray with Iapetos."

CRONUS & HIS CURSE ON ZEUS

According to Aeschylus, after Kronos was dethroned by Zeus he cursed his son to suffer the same fate. However, Prometheus warned Zeus in a timely fashion to avoid a union with the goddess Thetis, for their child was the one destined to overthrow him.


Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 907 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :

"Prometheus: Yes, truly, the day will come when Zeus, although stubborn of soul, shall be humbled, seeing that he plans a marriage [i.e. with the goddess Thetis] that shall hurl him into oblivion from his sovereignty and throne; and then immediately the curse his father Kronos invoked as he fell from his ancient throne, shall be fulfilled to the uttermost . . . Such an adversary is he now preparing despite himself, a prodigy [his son by Thetis] irresistible, even one who shall discover a flame mightier than the lightning and a deafening crash to outroar the thunder; a prodigy who shall shiver the trident, Poseidon's spear, that scourge of the sea and shaker of the land. Then, wrecked upon this evil, Zeus shall learn how different it is to be a sovereign and a slave."

CRONUS IMPRISONED IN TARTARUS

Homer, Iliad 8. 479 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

"The undermost limits of earth and sea, where Iapetos and Kronos seated have no shining of the sun god Hyperion to delight them nor winds’ delight, but Tartaros stands deeply about them."


Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"[Zeus and the gods] buried them [the Titanes] beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartaros. For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartaros upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side.There Gyes and Kottos and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis."


Hesiod, Theogony 53 ff :

"And he [Zeus] was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Kronos."


Hesiod, Theogony 820 ff :

"The Titanes under Tartaros who live with Kronos."


Stesichorus, Fragment 274A (from Philodemus, Piety) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C7th to 6th B.C.) :

"According to Apollonides and Hesiod and Stesichorus in his Oresteia and contrary to what I said before, that Kronos was thrown into Tartaros by him [Zeus]."


Aeschylus, Eumenides 640 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :

"Chorus : Zeus gives greater honor to a father's death, according to what you say; yet he himself bound his aged father, Kronos. How does this not contradict what you say? . .
Apollon : . . . Zeus could undo fetters, there is a remedy for that, and many means of release. But when the dust has drawn up the blood of a man, once he is dead, there is no return to life."


Plato, Cratylus 403e (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"[Has] Kronos . . . bound them with his famous chains?" [N.B. Kronos is used as a metaphor, his chains are inescapable.]


Plato, Euthyphro 5e (trans. Fowler) :

"Men believe that Zeus . . . put his father [Kronos] in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children."


Plato, Republic 377e (trans. Shorey) :

“[Plato cautions that men should not use the story of Zeus' punishment of his father Kronos as justification for the mistreatment of their own parents :] `When anyone images badly in his speech the true nature of gods and heroes, like a painter whose portraits bear no resemblance to his models.' `It is certainly right to condemn things like that,' he said; `but just what do we mean and what particular things?' `There is, first of all,' I said, `the greatest lie about the things of greatest concernment, which was no pretty invention of him [Hesiod] who told . . . [of] the doings and sufferings of Kronos at the hands of his son [Zeus]. Even if they were true I should not think that they ought to be thus lightly told to thoughtless young persons. Adeimantos, in our city, nor is it to be said in the hearing of a young man, that in doing the utmost wrong he would do nothing to surprise anybody, nor again in punishing his father's wrong-doings to the limit, but would only be following the example of the first and greatest of the gods.' `No, by heaven,' said he, `I do not myself think that they are fit to be told.'”


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 7 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

"The three gods [Zeus, Poseidon and Haides] overpowered the Titanes, confined them in Tartaros, and put the Hekatonkheires in charge of guarding them."


Statius, Thebaid 8. 41 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :

"Mine [Haides'] is the prison-house, now broken, of the Gigantes, and of the Titanes, eager to force their way to the world above, and his own unhappy sire [Kronos]."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 230 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Broadbeard Kronos sank under the thunderbolt, and Zeus sealed him deep in the dark Tartarean pit, armed in vain with the watery weapons of the storm. [N.B. the Tartarean pit was the reputed source of hurricanes.]"


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 50 ff :

"Kronos himself, who banqueted on his own young children in cannibal wise, was covered up in Gaia’s (Earth's) bosom [i.e., trapped in Tartaros], son of Ouranos (Heaven) though he was."

CRONUS KING OF THE ISLANDS OF THE BLESSED

According to some, Kronos, the former king of the Golden Age, was released by Zeus from Tartaros and made king of the islands of the Blessed, where the heroes were sent to dwell in paradise after death.


Hesiod, Works and Days 156 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"Zeus the son of Kronos made yet another, the fourth [race of men], upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Kadmos at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks of Oidipous, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for rich-haired Helene's sake : there death's end enshrouded a part of them. But to the others father Zeus the son of Kronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Okeanos, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Kronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory."


Pindar, Olympian Ode 2. 55 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"When they [men] die hearts that were void of mercy pay the due penalty, and of this world’s sins a judge below the earth holds trial, and of dread necessity declares the word of doom. But the good, through the nights alike, and through the days unending, beneath the sun’s bright ray, tax no the soil with the strength of their hands, nor the broad sea for a poor living, but enjoy a life that knows no toil; with men honoured of heaven, who kept their sworn word gladly, spending an age free from all tears. But the unjust endure pain that no eye can bear to see. But those who had good courage, three times on either side of death, to keep their hearts untarnished of all wrong, these travel along the road of Zeus to Kronos’ tower. There round the Islands of the Blest, the winds of Okeanos play, and golden blossoms burn, some nursed upon the waters, others on land on glorious trees; and woven on their hands are wreaths enchained and flowering crowns, under the just decrees of Rhadamanthys, who has his seat at the right hand of the great father, Rhea’s husband, goddess who holds the throne highest of all. And Peleus and Kadmos are of that number, and thither, when her prayers on the heart of Zeus prevailed, his mother brought Akhilleus, he who felled Hektor, Troy’s pillar invincible, unyielding, and brought death to Kyknos, and the Aithiop son of Eos."


Plato, Gorgias 525a ff (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"[Plato synchronises the stories of Kronos as king of the Golden Age and Kronos, king of Elysium :] Sokrates: By Homer's account, Zeus, Poseidon, and Plouton divided the sovereignty amongst them when they took it over from their father [Kronos]. Now in the time of Kronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), and dwells in all happiness apart from ill; but whoever has lived unjustly and impiously goes to the dungeon of requital and penance which, you know, they call Tartaros. Of these men there were judges in Kronos' time, and still of late in the reign of Zeus--living men to judge the living upon the day when each was to breathe his last; and thus the cases were being decided amiss. So Plouton [Haides] and the overseers from the Isles of the Blest came before Zeus with the report that they found men passing over to either abode undeserving. Then spake Zeus : `Nay,' said he, `I will put a stop to these proceedings . . . Now I, knowing all this before you, have appointed sons of my own to be judges; two from Asia, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and one from Europe, Aiakos."

CRONUS GOD OF TIME

Kronos, the god who devoured his own children (Poseidon representing the sea, Demeter the earth, Hera the air, and Hestia heavenly fire) symbolised the destructive ravages of time, which consumed all. As the King of the Golden Age, and of the Islands of the Blessed, he represented the passing of the ages. The name Kronos, means simply time (khronos).


Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 24 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :

"Another theory also, and that a scientific one, has been the source of a number of deities, who clad in human form have furnished the poets with legends and have filled man’s life with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example, an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece that Caelus [Ouranos the Sky] was mutilated by his son Saturnus [Kronos], and Saturnus himself thrown into bondage by his son Jove [Zeus]: now these immoral fables enshrined a decidedly clever scientific theory. Their meaning was that the highest element of celestial ether or fire [Ouranos the Sky], which by itself generates all things, is devoid of that bodily part which required union with another for the work of procreation. By Saturnus [Kronos] again they denoted that being who maintains the course and revolution of the seasons and periods of time, the deity so designated in Greek, for Saturnus’ Greek name is Kronos, which is the same as khronos, a space of time. The Latin designation ‘Saturnus’ on the other hand is due to the fact that he is ‘saturated’ or ‘satiated with years’ (anni); the fable is that he was in the habit of devouring his sons - meaning that Time devours the ages and gorges himself insatiably with the years that are past. Saturnus is bound by Jove [Zeus] in order that Time’s courses might not be unlimited, and that Jove might fetter him by the bonds of the stars."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 178 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Young like crafty Kronides [Zeus] shaking the aegis-cape . . . ancient like Kronos heavy-kneed, pouring rain."

HYMNS TO CRONUS

Orphic Hymn 13 to Cronus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :

"To Kronos, Fumigation from Storax. Eternal father, mighty Titan, hear, great sire of gods and men, whom all revere; endued with various counsel, pure and strong, to whom increase and decrement belong. Hence matter’s flowing forms through thee that die, by thee restored, their former place supply [reincarnation]. The world immense in everlasting chains, strong and ineffable thy power contains; father of vast eternity, divine, O mighty Kronos, various speech is thine; blossom of earth and of starry skies, husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wise. Obstetric power and venerable root, from which the various forms of being shoot; no parts peculiar can thy power enclose, diffused through all, from which the world arose. O best of beings, of a subtle mind, propitious hear, to suppliant prayers inclined; the sacred rites benevolent attend, and grant a blameless life, a blessed end [passage after death to Elysion]."

CULT OF CRONUS

I) ATHENS Chief City of Attica (Southern Greece)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 18. 7 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"Within the precincts [of the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios at Athens] are antiquities: a bronze Zeus, a temple of Kronos and Rhea and an enclosure of Ge (Earth) surnamed Olympia."
II) OLYMPIA Sanctuary in Elis (Southern Greece)


Pindar, Olympian Ode 1. 111 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :

"When I come to Kronos’ sunlit hill [at Olympia]."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 20. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :

"Mount Kronios, as I have already said, extends parallel to the terrace [at the sanctuary of Olympia in Elis] with the treasuries on it. On the summit of the mountain the Basilai (Kings), as they are called, sacrifice to Kronos at the spring equinox [the start of the new year], in the month called Elaphios (Of the Deer) among the Eleans."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 6 & 10 :

"As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Kronos was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Daktyloi Idaioi, who are the same as those called Kouretes . . . Herakles, being the eldest, matched his brothers, as a game, in a running-race, and crowned the winner with a branch of wild olive . . . Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Kronos. The record of victors include Apollon, who outran Hermes and beat Ares at boxing."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 2. 2 :

"The Olympic games . . . are traced back to a time earlier than the human race, the story being that Kronos and Zeus wrestled there, and that the Kouretes were the first to race at Olympia."
III) LEBADEIA Town in Boiotia (Central Greece)


Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 39. 3 :

"[At the chthonic oracle of Trophonios at Lebadeia in Boiotia :] Meat he [the seeker] has in plenty from the sacrifices, for he who descends sacrifices to Trophonios himself and to the children of Trophonios, to Apollon also and Kronos, to Zeus surnamed King, to Hera Charioteer, and to Demeter."


Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 39. 4 :

"In a second temple [of Trophonios at Lebadeia, Boiotia] are images of Kronos, Hera and Zeus."
IV) GADES Greek Colony in Iberia (Southern Spain)


Strabo, Geography 3. 5. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"The city of Gades is situated on the westerly parts of the island [of Gades off the coast of southern Spain]; and next to it, at the extremity of the island and near the islet, is the temple of Kronos; but the temple of Herakles is situated on the other side, facing towards the east."

CRONUS, MISCELLANY

Plato, Cratylus 396a (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :

"[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :]
Sokrates : This god [Zeus] is correctly named, through whom (di' hon) all living beings have the gift of life (zên) . . . And it might seem, at first hearing, highly irreverent to call him the son of Kronos and reasonable to say that Zeus is the offspring of some great intellect; and so he is, for koros signifies not child, but the purity (katharon) and unblemished nature of his mind. Kronos, according to tradition, is the son of Ouranos (Heaven); but the upward gaze is rightly called by the name heavenly (ourania), looking at the things above (horô ta anô), and the astronomers say, Hermogenes, that from this looking people acquire a pure mind, and Ouranos is correctly named."


Plato, Cratylus 400d & 401e :

"[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :]
Sokrates : Let us inquire what thought men had in giving them [the gods] their names . . . The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . . . After Hestia it is right to consider Rhea and Kronos. The name of Kronos, however, has already been discussed . . . I seem to have a vision of Herakleitos [philosopher C6th to 5th B.C.] saying some ancient words of wisdom as old as the reign of Kronos and Rhea, which Homer said too . . . Herakleitos says, you know, that all things move and nothing remains still, and he likens the universe to the current of a river, saying that you cannot step twice into the same stream . . . Well, don't you think he who gave to the ancestors of the other gods the names 'Rhea' and 'Kronos' had the same thought as Herakleitos? Do you think he gave both of them the names of streams merely by chance? Just so Homer, too, says--`Okeanos the origin of the gods, and their mother Tethys.'"

[N.B. Plato associates the name of Rhea with the verb "to flow" and Kronos with "time" and connects the pair with the gods of the world-river, Okeanos and Tethys.]

CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH EL OLAM (PHOENICIAN)

Kronos was identified by the Greeks with the Phoenician god of time El Olam (El of Eternal Time), spelt Oulomos in Greek. The child sacrifices offered this god underlined the connection in the Greek mind.
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"His [Kronos'] kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honour; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturnus] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions the Carthaginians sacrifice of children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honour of this god and many places bore his name."


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 655 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :

"Now first appeared the golden crop of men [the Golden Race of Mankind] brought forth in the image of the gods, with the roots of their stock in the earth. And these dwelt in the [Phoenician] city of Beroe, that primordial seat which Kronos himself builded."


Suidas s.v. Sardanios gelos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :

"Sardanios gelos. Sardonic laugh. A proverb applied to those laughing at their own death. Demon says that it was handed down because the inhabitants of Sardinia used to sacrifice to Kronos the finest of their captives and those over 70 years of age, who laughed to show their courage (that is, bravery). But Timaios [says] that those who had lived long enough in Sardinia used to laugh when they were herded by their sons with wooden staves into the trench in which they were about to be buried . . . And Klitarkhos and others say that in Carthage, during great prayers, they place a boy in the hands of Kronos (a bronze statue is set up, with outstretched hands, and under it a baking oven) and then put fire under; the boy shrunk by the fire seems to laugh." [N.B. The "Sardinians" are probably the Carthaginian colonists of the island whose towns dotted the coast.]

CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH SATURN (ITALIAN)

Kronos was identified with the Italian agricultural god Saturnus, in whose honour the mid-winter Saturnalia festival was celebrated.


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :

"Kronos [here the Italian Saturnus], since he was the eldest of the Titanes, became king and caused all men who were his subjects to change from a rude way of living to civilized life, and for this reason he received great approbation and visited many regions of the inhabited earth. Among all he met he introduced justice and sincerity of the soul, and this is why the tradition has come down to later generations that he men of Kronos’ time were good-hearted, altogether guileless, and blest with felicity. His kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honour; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturnus] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions the Carthaginian sacrifice of children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honour of this god and many places bore his name. And because of the exceptional obedience to laws no injustice was committed by any one at nay time and all the subjects of the rule of Kronos lived a life of blessedness, in the unhindered enjoyment of every pleasure. To this the poet Hesiod also bears witness in the following words : `And they who were Kronos’ day, what time he reigned in heaven, lived like gods, no care in heart, remote and free from ills and toils severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares; old age lay not upon their limbs, but they, equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed endless delight of feasting far from ills, and when death came, they sank in it as in a sleep. And many other things were theirs; grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them fruit abundantly and without stint; and glad of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout the earth, in midst of blessing manifold, rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed gods.’ This then, is what the myths have to say about Kronos."


Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 320 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :

"King Picus, son of Saturnus [Kronos], ruled the land of Ausonia [Latium], a king whose chief delight was chargers for battle."


Virgil, Aeneid 7. 48 ff (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :

"Faunus was son of Picus, who called Saturnus his father--yes, Saturnus originated their line."


Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :

"If these brothers [Zeus, Poseidon, Haides] are included among the gods, can we deny the divinity of their father Saturnus [Kronos], who is held in the highest reverence by the common people in the west [Italy]? And if he is a god, we must also admit that his father Caelus (Sky) [Ouranos] is a god."

Sources
  • Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  • Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
  • Hesiod, Works & Days - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th B.C.
  • Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia - Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  • Pindar, Odes - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Pindar, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragments - Greek Lyric C7th-6th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric IV Corinna, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric V Timotheus, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Agamemnon - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Eumenides - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Fragments - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Plato, Cratylus - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Euthyphro - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Gorgias - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Hipparchus - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Laws - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Republic - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Plato, Statesman - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  • Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica - Greek Epic C3rd A.D.
  • Callimachus, Hymns - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  • Callimachus, Fragments - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  • Lycophron, Alexandra - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  • Aratus, Phaenomena - Greek Astronomy C3rd B.C.
  • Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st B.C.
  • Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  • Plutarch, Lives - Greek Historian C1st-2nd A.D.
  • The Orphic Hymns - Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. - C2nd A.D.
  • Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Ovid, Fasti - Latin Poetry C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Virgil, Aeneid - Latin Epic C1st B.C.
  • Virgil, Georgics - Latin Bucolic C1st B.C.
  • Cicero, De Natura Deorum - Latin Rhetoric C1st B.C.
  • Seneca, Hercules Furens - Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  • Pliny the Elder, Natural History - Latin Encyclopedia C1st A.D.
  • Statius, Thebaid - Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  • Oppian, Cynegetica - Greek Poetry C3rd A.D.
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  • Suidas - Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D